Long-term dynamics of hydrological and hydro-chemical indicators of Kytai Lake (Odessa region, Ukraine)

  • M. M. Dzhurtubaev Odessa National University named after I.I. Mechnikov
  • T. V. Urbanskaya Danube Basin Management of Water Resources
  • Y. M. Dzhurtubaev Odessa National University named after I.I. Mechnikov
Keywords: temperature conditions, oxygen conditions, transparency, solute


Odessa region contains a unique natural complex – the Danube lakes. One of the largest is Kytai Lake. After their construction in the second half of the XX century, dams have drastically changed the ecological situation in the lakes, including hydrological and hydro-chemical parameters. 120 water samples were taken from the lake in the years 2004–2013. 1,390 measurements were taken according to 11 indicators. Our research also used historical data for 2004–2005. Studies have shown that the hydrological and hydrochemical situation in Kytai Lake deteriorated in the period 2004 to 2013. There was a marked decrease in the water transparency and a steady increase in the amount of suspended matter in the water (from 29.4 mg/dm³ in 2006 to 143.2 mg/dm³ in 2012). The salinity of the water greatly increased (up to 6200 mg/ dm³ in September – November 2012). Permanganate oxidization permanently and significantly exceeeds the maximum permissible value of BOD5. The amount of dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen, phosphorus, nitrates and pH conform to the permitted norm, although the situation with these indicators has also gradually worsened. The average annual temperature of the water was 11.4–15.8 °C, which corresponds to the temperature regime of the continental waters in the region. To improve the ecological situation in the lake, it is necessary to ensure that the pumping station supplies a stable inflow of water from the Danube, which would significantly lower the excessive salinity of the lake. 


Buhvestova, O., Kangur, K., Haldna, M., Mȍls, T., 2011. Nitrogen and phosphorus in Estonian rivers discharging into Lake Peipsi: Estimation of loads and seasonal and spatial distribution of concentrations. Eston. J. Ecol. 60(1), 18–38. >> doi.org/10.3176/eco.2011.1.03

Canham, C.D., Pace, M.L., Weathers, K.C., McNeil, E.W., Bedford, B.L., Murphy, L., Quinn, S., 2012. Nitrogen deposition and nitrogen concentrations: A regional analysis of terrestrial controls and aquatic linkages. Ecosphere 3(7), 1–16. >> doi.org/10.1890/es12-00090.1

Denga, J.M., Medinets, V.I., 2002. Gidrohimicheskij rezhim i kachestvo vod Pridunajskih ozjor [Hydrochemical regime and water quality of the Danube lakes]. Visnik Odes’k. Nac. Univ 7(2), 17–23 (in Russian).

Dzhurtubaev, J.M., Dzhurtubaev, M.M., 2011. Nekotorye limno-logicheskie harakteristiki pridunajskih ozjor Odesskoj oblasti v sovremennyh uslovijah [Some limnological characteristics of the Danube lakes Odessa region in modern conditions]. Nauk. Zap. Ternop. Nac. Ped. Univ. Ser. Biol. 49, 26–31 (in Russian).

Dzhurtubaev, M.M., Dzhurtubaev, J.M., Zamorov, V.V., 2012. Brjuhonogie molljuski pridunajskih ozjor i vodotokov Odesskoj oblasti [Gastropods Danube lakes and streams of Odessa region]. Pechatnyj Dom, Odessa (in Russian).

Enaki, I.G., Zhuravljova, L.A., 1993 Gidrohimicheskij rezhim [Hydrochemical regime]. Gidrojekologija ukrainskogo uchastka Dunaja i sopredel’nyh vodojomov. Naukova Dumka, Kyiv. P. 23–40 (in Russian).

Gâştescu, P., Bretcan, P., Teodorescu, D.C., 2016. The lakes of the Romanian Black Sea coast. Maninduced changes, water regime, present state. Rev. Roum. Gėogr./Rom. Journ. Geogr. 60(1), 27–42.

Gjeshtesku, P., Brajer, A., 1969a. Gidrologicheskaja svjaz’ mezhdu rukavami i ozjorami del’ty Dunaja [The hydrological connection between the sleeve and the lakes of the Danube delta]. Limnologicheskie issledovanija Dunaja. Naukova Dumka, Kyiv. P. 109–118 (in Russian).

Gjeshtesku, P., Brajer, A., 1969b. Gidrohimicheskie harakteristiki ozjor, raspolozhennyh v del’te Dunaja [Hydrochemical characteristics of lakes located in the Danube Delta]. Limnologicheskie issledovanija Dunaja. Naukova Dumka, Kyiv. P. 119 (in Russian).

Gopchenko, J.D., Belash, J.S., 2005. Osoblyvosti vodnosol’ovogo rezhymu prydunajs’kyh ozer (na prykladi ozera Kytaj) [Features water-salt regime of the danube lakes (for example Lake Kytai)]. Nauk. Zap. Ternop. Nac. Ped. Univ. Ser. Biol. 26, 98–100 (in Ukrainian).

Gopchenko, J.D., Medvedjeva, J.S., 2008. Osoblyvosti vodnogo i sol’ovogo rezhymiv oz. Kytaj u 2007 r [Eatures of water and salt regimes of Kytai lake in 2007 year]. Visn. Odes’k. Derzh. Ekol. Univ. 6, 129–132 (in Ukrainian).

Kagalou, I., Papastergiadou, E., Leonardos, I., 2008. Long term changes in the eutrophication process in a shallow Mediterranean lake ecosystem of W. Greece: Response after the reduction of external load. J. Environ. Manage. 87, 497–506. >> doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2007.01.039

Kristensen, P., Søndergaard, M., Jeppesen, E., 1992. Resuspension in a shallow eutrophic lake. Hydrobiologia 228(1), 101–109. >> doi.org/10.1007/bf00006481

Punning, J.M., Kapanen, G., 2009. Phosphorus flux in Lake Peipsi sensu stricto, Eastern Europe. Eston. J. Ecol. 58(1), 3–17. >> doi.org/10.3176/eco.2009.1.01

Romanenco, V.D. (ed.), 2006. Metody gidrologichnyh doslidzhen’ poverhnevyh vod [Methods of hydrological studies of surface waters]. Logos, Kyiv (in Ukrainian).

Semenov, A.D. (ed.), 1977. Rukovodstvo po himicheskomu analizu poverhnostnyh vod sushi [Guidelines for chemical analysis of surface waters]. Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad (in Russian).

Shvebs, G.I., Igoshyn, M.I., 2003. Katalog richok i vodojm Ukrajiny [Product rivers and ponds Ukraine that occurred]. Astroprynt, Odesa (in Ukrainian).

Spears, B.M., Carvalho, L., Peterson, D.M., 2007. Phosphorus partitioning in a shallow lake: Implications for water quality management. Water Environ. J. 21, 47–53. >> doi.org/10.3176/eco.2009.1.01

Tammeorg, O., Mȍls, T., Kangur, K., 2014. Weather conditions influencing phosphorus concentration in the growing period in the large shallow Lake Peipsi (Estonia/Russia). J. Limnol. 73(1), 27–35.

Tiberti, R., Tartari, G.A., Marchetto, A., 2010. Geomorphology and hydrochemisti of 12 Alpine lakes in the Gran paradise National Park, Italy. J. Limnol. 69(2), 242–256. >> doi.org/10.4081/jlimnol.2010.242

Timchenko, V.M., Novikov, B.I., 1993. Vzveshennoe v vode veshhestvo – kljuchevoj jekologo-gidrologicheskij jelement ust’evogo uchastka Dunaja i sopredel’nyh vodojomov [Weighted substance in the water – a key ecological and hydrological element of the mouth of the Danube and adjacent bodies of water]. Gidrojekologija ukrainskogo uchastka Dunaja i sopredel’nyh vodojomov. Naukova Dumka, Kyiv. P. 3–14 (in Russian).

Tsunogai, U., Daita, S., Komatsu, D.D., Nakagava, F., Tanaka, A., 2011. Quantifying nitrate dynamies in an oligotrophic using ∆17 O. Biogeosciences 8, 687–702. >> doi.org/10.5194/bg-8-687-2011