Pre-migratory congregations of Red-crowned (Grus japonensis), White-naped (G. vipio) and Hooded (G. monacha) cranes in the Muraviovka Park for Sustainable Land Use in 1992
AbstractThe autumn pre-migratory concentrations of Red-crowned, White-naped and Hooded Cranes were studied in the Muraviovka Park for Sustainable Land Use and Environmentla Education (Tambov District, Amur Region, Russian Federation) during 23.08–29.09.1992. We counted 292 Hooded Cranes, 34 White-naped Cranes, and 17 Red-crowned Cranes during the study period. We also marked specific differences in the behaviour of the birds connected with their readiness for migration. The Hooded Cranes showed the greatest readiness for migration. We observed mutual flights, overnight stays, and feeding of adult birds and family groups in their flocks. This was not the same in the flocks of White-naped Cranes. However, the average number of birds in the flocks of White-naped Cranes had increased by the end of our observations due to new families joining the general flock. The family parties of the Red-crowned Crane and adult birds without young individuals stayed apart from each other and from other crane species during the whole observation period. We registered the autumn departure of Hooded Cranes in late September, the migratory departure of White-naped Cranes in the middle of October, and the Red-crowned Cranes left the area in the first half of November. The breeding period for all crane species starts at the same time: the third decade of April – the beginning of May. The young of the studied crane species differ significantly in the period of time before fledging: Hooded Cranes – 55–60 days, White-naped Cranes – 65–70 days, and Red-crowned Cranes – 70–75 days because of their specific differences in the ratio of size to weight (1 : 1.3 : 1.7). Thus, the time difference between the Hooded and Red-crowned Cranes is about 2–3 weeks. We suggest that this is the main reason that determines the differences between these species in the timing of the the start of autumn migration.
Aboimov Y. N. (ed.) (2009). Krasnaya kniga Amurskoy oblasti: Redkie i nakhodyashchiesya pod ugrozoy ischeznoveniya vidy zhivotnykh, rasteniy i gribov [Red Data Book of Amur Region. Rare and threatened animal, plant, and mushroom species]. Blagoveshchensk State Pedagogical University Press, Blagoveshchensk (in Russian).
Amur Bird Project at Muraviovka Park: Report 2014 (PDF Download Available).
Amur Bird Project at Muraviovka Park: Report 2015 (PDF Download Available).
Amur Bird Project at Muraviovka Park: Report 2016 (PDF Download Available).
Andronova, R. S., & Andronov, V. A. (2008). Prolet chernykh zhuravley v Arkharinskoy nizmennosti [The passage migration of Hooded Crane in Arkharnskaia Lowland]. Zhuravli Evrazii (biologiya, rasprostranenie, migratsii) [Eurasian Cranes (biology, distribution, migration)]. Moskovskiy zoopark, Moscow (in Russian).
Arkhiv pogody po gorodam SNG (XIX i XX veka) [Weather archive for SIC cities (XIX and XX centuries)]. (in Russian).
Butler, M. J., Harris, G., & Strobel, B. N. (2013). Influence of whooping crane population dynamics on its recovery and management. Biological Conservation, 162, 89–99.
Butler, M. J., Metzger, K. L., & Harris, G. M. (2017). Are whooping cranes destined for extinction? Climate change imperils recruitment and population growth. Ecology and Evolution, 7(8), 2821–2834.
Darman, Y. A., & Andronov, V. A. (2011). Status yaponskogo zhuravlya v rossiyskoy chasti basseynv reki Amur [Status of Red-crowned Crane in the Russian part of the Amur River]. Zhuravli Evrazii (biologiya, rasprostranenie, migratsii, upravlenie) [Eurasian Cranes (biology, distribution, migration, management)], 4, 226–232 (in Russian).
Dugintsov, V. A. (2015). Nablyudeniya za osenney migratsiey zhuravley v Murav'evskom parke [Observations over the cranes’ autumn migration in the Muraviovka Park] (in Russian).
Flint, V. E. (1987). Semeystvo Zhuravlinye [Ralidae Family]. In: Birds of the USSR. Ralidae, Griuformes. Kuroobraznye, Zhuravleobraznye. Leningrad (in Russian).
Gilber, M., Buuveibaatar, B., Fine, A. E., Jambal, L., & Strindberg, S. (2016). Declining breeding populations of White-naped Cranes in Eastern Mongolia, a ten-year update. Bird Conservation International.
Gil-Weir, K. C., William, E., Grant, W. E., Slack, R. D, Wang, H.-H., & Fujiwara, M. (2012). Demography and population trends of Whooping Cranes. Journal of Field Ornithology, 83(1), 1–10.
Glushchenko, Y. N., Shibnev, Y. B., & Volkovskaya-Kurdyukova, E. A. (2006). Ptitsy. Pozvonochnye zhivotnye zapovednika “Khankayskiy” i Prikhankayskoy nizmennosti. Birds. Vertebrates of “Khankayskiy” Reserve and Caspian Plain. Vladivostok (in Russian).
Gorlov, P. I. (1998). Predmigratsionnoe skoplenie serykh zhuravley na Tsentral'nom Sivashe. Pre-migratory flocks of Gray cranes in Central Sivash. Branta, 1, 103–110 (in Russian).
Harris, J., & Mirande, C. (2013). A global overview of cranes: Status, threats and conservation priorities. Chinese Birds, 4, 189–209.
Heim, W., & Suanjak, M. (2016). Siberian Crane Leucogeranus leucogeranus numbers on the increase at Muraviovka Park, Far East Russia. Birding Asia, 25, 44–46.
Higuchi, H., Pierre, J. P., Krever, V., Andronov, V., Fujita, G., Ozaki, K., Goroshko, O., Ueta, M., & Kespayk, Y. E. (1989). Izuchenie sezonnykh skopleniy. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po izucheniyu zhuravley. [Study of seasonal congregations. Methods of cranes’ study]. Tartu (in Russian).
Korobov, D. V., & Glushchenko, Y. N. (2011). Kal'nitskaya. Migratsiya daurskogo zhuravlya na Khankaysko-Razdol'nenskoy ravnine (Primorskiy kray) [Kalnitskaia maigration of White-naped crane in Khankaysko-Razdol'nenskaia Valley (Primosrkiy Krai)]. Zhuravli Evrazii (biologiya, rasprostranenie, migratsii, upravlenie) [Eurasian Cranes (biology, distribution, migrations managamane)], 4, 335–344 (in Russian).
Liying, S., & Hongfei, Z. (2012). Status, threats and conservation needs for the continental population of the Red-crowned Crane. Chinese Birds, 3(3), 147–164.
Marsh, D. M., & Trenhan, P. C. (2008). Current trends in plant and animal population monitoring. Conservation Biology, 22, 647–655.
Nosachenko, G. V., & Smirenskiy, S. M. (2008). Struktura i raspredelenie nochevok zhuravley v Murav'evskom parke, Amurskaya oblast'. [Structure and distribution of crane roosting in Muraviovka Park, Amur regions]. Zhuravli Evrazii (biologiya, rasprostranenie, migratsii) [Eurasian cranes (biology, distribution, migrations)], 3, 375–383 (in Russian).
Pan'kin, N. S., & Neyfel'dt, I. A. (1976). Yaponskiy zhuravl' v Amurskoy oblasti. Redkie, ischezayushchie i maloizuchennye ptitsy [Red-crowned crane in Amur region. Rare, distinct, and understudied species]. Trudy Okskogo Gosudarstvennogo Zapovednika, 13, 86–92 (in Russian).
Smirensky, S., & Mita, N. (2004). Using a remote technology in conservation: Satellite tracking white-naped cranes in Russia and Asia. Conservation Biology, 18, 136–147.
Sun, K.-J., Hijikata, N., Ichinose, T., & Higuchi, H. (2015). The migration flyways and protection of Cranes. China Global Environmental Research, 19, 113–121.
Vinter, S. V. (1977). Gnezdovanie yaponskogo zhuravlya v Srednem Priamur'e [Breeding of Red-crowned crane in the Middle Amur area]. Bulletin MOIP, 6, 39–53 (in Russian).
Vinter, S. V. (1979). Yaponskiy zhuravl' – zhemchuzhina Azii [Red-crowned crane is the Asian Pearl]. Priroda, 4, 96–100 (in Russian).
Vinter, S. V., & Gorlov, P. I. (2003). Razmnozhenie serogo zhuravlya, Grus grus, na vostoke Ukrainy v zavisimosti ot pogodnykh usloviy [Effect of weather conditions on the breeding pattern of Gray crane in Eastern Ukraine]. Vestnik Zoologii, 37(1), 49–59 (in Russian).
Vinter, S. V., Andryushchenko, Y. A., Gorlov, P. I., & Shibnev, Y. B. (2015). Ekologiya i povedenie razmnozhayushchikhsya chernykh zhuravley v Severo-Zapadnom Primor'e [Ecology and behavior of breeding Hooded cranes in North-Eastern Primorye]. Zhuravli Evrazii (biologiya, rasprostranenie, razvedenie) [Eurasian cranes (biology, distribution, migrations)], 5, 33–67 (in Russian).
Wang, Z.-Q., Li Jiang, X.-Z., Liu, D.-G., & Zhang, H. C. (2014) Spatial distribution of the red-crown crane population in Zhalong wetlands over the last 30 years. Journal of Ecology and Rural Environment, 30, 27–31.
Yuxiang, L. I., Changzhan, S., Yucheng, Y., Xiaojing, L. I., Fengli, L. I., Jie, H., & Xiuli, H. (2012). Monitoring population dynamics of the migratory Red-crowned Crane (Grus japonensis) at Shuangtaihekou National Nature Reserve, Northeastern China, from 1991 to 2012. Chinese Birds, 3(3), 225–229.
Zhou, D., Xia, X., Xu, W., Zhang, H., Qian, Z., Gao, J., Wang, Z., & Jiang, M. (2016). A growing captive population erodes the wild Red-crowned Cranes (Grus japonensis) in China. Avian Research, 7, 22.