Antibiofilm forming, antimicrobial activity and some biochemical properties of Vaccinium vitis idaea leaf and berry extracts on Staphylococcus aureus
AbstractInfections caused by Staphylococcus genus bacteria remain a relevant problem due to the high percentage of antibiotic-resistant biofilm-forming strains of isolates of this genus. Herbs are a promising source for many biologically active compounds with antimicrobial properties. The aim of the research was to study the antimicrobial and antibiofilm formation activity of berry and leaf extracts of Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. upon clinical isolates of S. aureus, and the main biochemical properties of these extracts. For the purpose of analysis, we used S. aureus isolated from the mouth cavities and pharynx of human patients suffering from inflammatory diseases. The plants for the study were gathered in Pylypets, Mizhhiria rayon, Zakarpatska oblast (Transcarpathia). From Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., leaf and berry extracts were produced. To determine the chemical properties of the extracts, the following constituents were investigated: total tannin, flavonoids, total phenols, anthocyanins (by spectrophotometric method), and the total amount of vitamin C in berry extract (chromatographically). The antimicrobial activity was studied by diffusion-into-agar method and determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations. The antibiofilm activity of the extracts was tested in standard 96-well microtitration plates. The main chemical composition of ethyl extracts of Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. berries and leaves was identified. The level of tannins in leaf extracts was established to be higher than in fruit extracts (3.50% and 0.26% per 100 g of extract, respectively). It was shown that extracts of V. vitis-idaea berries and leaves demonstrate high antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates of S. aureus. Further it was established that leaf extracts had high ability to destroy the bacterial biofilm of S. aureus. Leaf extracts were also able to destroy the formed biofilm. Even in the 0.01% concentration, leaf extract inhibited the formation of the biofilm by 69.9% and caused the destruction of the formed biofilm by 62.5%. Thereby, the obtained results show good prospects for the use of V. vitis-idaea leaf extracts as an anti-staphylococcal remedy with antibiofilm forming properties.
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