Soil and soil breathing remote monitoring: A short review
AbstractThe efficiency of agricultural use of soils depends directly on their quality indicators, which include an extended set of characteristics: from data of the environmental situation to the component composition of the soil air. Therefore, for a more complete survey of agricultural land in order to determine their qualitative indicators and subsequent application, it is necessary to carry out comprehensive monitoring while simultaneously studying the characteristics of soils and their air composition. The article is devoted to the literature analysis on the remote monitoring of soils and soil air. Particular attention was paid to the relationship between soil type and soil air composition and it was found that the soil air composition (in the combination with pH and humidity parameters) can assess the type, quality and environmental condition of soils. Since when developing a remote monitoring system of soil air soil moisture and soil structure significantly affect the processes occurring in soils, and ultimately the quantitative composition of soil air, it is very important to know the dependence of the soil air composition on the type and quality of the soil itself, the influence of moisture, structure and other parameters on it. It was shown that the use of sensors is a promising direction for the development of the soils and soil air remote monitoring. It was indicated that soil and soil air remote monitoring in real time will provide reliable, timely information on the environmental status of soils and their quality. Commercial sensors that can be used to determine CO2, O2, NOx, CH4, CO, H2 and NH3 were considered and the technique for sensor signal processing was chosen. A remote monitoring system with the use of existing commercial sensors was proposed, the movement of which can be realized with the help of quadcopter, which will allow parallel scanning of the soils and the land terrain. Such a system will make it possible to correctly assess the readiness of soils for planting, determine their intended use, correctly apply fertilizers, and even predict the yield of certain crops. Thereby, this approach will create a modern on-line system for full monitoring of soil, land and rapid response in the case of its change for the agro-industrial sector.
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