Possible ecologically based ways of preserving and developing the Ukrainian Carpathians


  • V. І. Nikolaichuk Uzhgorod National University
  • M. М. Vakerich Uzhgorod National University
  • M. V. Bilkey Uzhgorod National University
  • O. P. Chechuy Kharkiv National Agrarian University named after V.V. Dokuchaev
  • I. Voloshchuk University of Matej Bel
Keywords: ecology, Ukrainian Carpathians, protected areas, human pressure

Abstract

Ukraine has transformed into one of the most environmentally dangerous countries in the world due to the high concentration of industrial production and agriculture and predatory use of natural resources. The current ecological situation in Ukraine is characterized by a deep ecological crisis, which is caused by the laws of operation of the command economy of the former USSR. The majority of the environmental and social indicators of Ukraine are among the worst in Europe. The Carpathian Mountains are among the most significant and interesting landscapes in Europe from the geological and geomorphological, scenic and biological perspectives. The giant arc of the Carpathians begins in southern Romania and passes through Ukraine, Slovakia, Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary to Austria, crosses all Eastern and Central Europe. A third of the forest reserves of Ukraine are located in the Ukrainian Carpathians, at 53.5% the percentage of forest cover of the area is among the highest in the country. About 50% of the gene pool of Ukraine’s plants, many species of trees and medicinal plants grows there. The geographical location and large area of the rich natural heritage of the Carpathians have multifaceted importance for the conservation of biological, phytocoenotic and landscape diversity and maintaining the ecological balance in the central part of our continent. As with the Alps mountain range, this is an important ecological corridor between Western, Central and Eastern Europe, which promotes the migration of species and their spread into lowland landscapes. In order to preserve biodiversity an inventory of virgin forest ecosystems should be made and strict measures for their protection should be enforced. It is necessary to continue the practice of establishing bilateral areas in cross-border protected areas in order to combine efforts to solve pressing environmental challenges. Conservation of the Carpathians Biodiversity is an urgent problem. Structural changes in the economy of the region are expected to strengthen the recreational value of the Ukrainian Carpathians for the public not only in our country but also in Central and Eastern Europe, reducing the technogenic loading. International cooperation of all countries of the Carpathian region is imperative. The development of tourism in the Carpathians is highly promising, but this should be civilized tourism, taking into account the environmental sustainability of the recreational areas and protected areas. 

References

Adam, C.A., Heather, M.K., Eric, R.Y., Jeremy, T.K., 2009. Predicting the future of species diversity: Macroecological theory, climate change, and direct tests of alternative forecasting methods. Ecography 32(1), 22–33.
Bates, B.C., Kundzewicz, Z.W., Wu, S., Palutikof, J.P., 2008. Climate change and water. Technical paper of the Intergovernmental panel on climate change. IPPCC Secretariat, Geneva.
Belal, A., Springuel, I., 1996. Economic value of plant diversity in arid environments. Nature and Resources 31(1), 33–39.
Benestad, R.E., Haugen, J.E., 2007. On complex extremes: Flood hazards and combined high spring-time precipitation and temperature in Norway. Clim. Change 85, 381–406.
Bobyliov, Y.P., Brygadyrenko, V.V., Bulakhov, V.L., Gaichenko, V.A., Gasso, V.Y., Didukh, Y.P., Ivashov, A.V., Kucheriavyi, V.P., Maliovanyi, M.S., Mytsyk, L.P., Pakhomov, O.Y., Tsaryk, I.V., Shabanov, D.A., 2014. Ekologija [Ecology]. Folio, Kharkiv (in Ukrainian).
Bruijnzeel, L.A., 2004. Hydrological functions of tropical forests: Not seeing the soil for the trees? Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 104, 185–228.
Cheng, L., Li, S.M., Gan, L., Liu, H.Y., 2004. Research on tourism security management system. Progress in Safety Science and Technology 10, 2565–2570.
Cheng, Z.H., Zhang, J.-T., Wu, B.H., Niu, L.Q., 2005. Relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes in Luya Mountain Nature Reserve, Shanxi, China. Environmental Management 36(3), 374–381.
Collins, A., 1999. Tourism development and natural capital. Ann. Tourism Res. 26, 98–109.
Commarmot, B., Bachofen, H., Bundziak, Y., Bürgi, A., Ramp, B., Shparyk, Y., Sukhariuk, D., Viter, R., Zingg, A., 2005. Structures of virgin and managed beech forests in Uholka (Ukraine) and Sihlwald (Switzerland): A comparative study. For. Snow Landsc. Res. 79, 45–56.
Cumming, G.S., 2007. Globla biodiversity scenarios and landscape ecology. Landsc. Ecol. 22, 671–685.
Douben, K.J., 2006. Characteristics of river floods and flooding: A global overview, 1985–2003. Irrig. Drain. 55(1), 9–21.
Farrell, E.P., Führer, E., Ryan, D., Andersson, F., Hüttl, P.P., 2000. European forest ecosystems: Building the future on the legacy of the past. Forest Ecol. Manag. 132, 5–20.
Felbaba-Klushyna, L.M., 2009. Oxorona pryrody ekosystemy verxivya basejnu r. Tysy (Zakarpattya) [Nature protection of ecosystems upper basin Tisa (Transcarpathia)]. Visn. Uzhgorod Univ. Ser. Biol. 26, 248–261 (in Ukrainian).
Gamper, J.A., 1981. Tourism in Austria – A case study of the influence of tourism on ethnic relations. Ann. Tourism Res. 8(3), 432–446.
Geneletti, D., Dawa, D., 2009. Environmental impact assessment of mountain tourism in developing regions: A study in Ladakh, Indian Himalaya. Environ. Impact Asses. 29(4), 229–242.
Golubec’, M.A., 2003. Bіotichna rіznomanіtnіstj і naukovі pіdkhodi do її zberezhennya [Biotic diversity and scientific approaches to its preservation]. Lіga Pres, Lvіv (in Ukrainian).
Gottesfeld, A.S., 1996. British Columbia flood scars: Maximum flood-stage indicators. Geomorphology 14, 319–325.
Gottesfeld, A.S., Gottesfeld, L.D., 1990. Floodplain dynamics of a wandering river, dendrochronology of the Morice River, British Columbia, Canada. Geomorphology 3, 159–179.
Grothmann, T., Reusswig, F., 2006. People at risk of flooding: Why some residents take precautionary action while others do not. Nat. Hazards 38, 101–120.
Karadeniz, N., Somuncu, M., 2003. Approaches for preservation of mountainous areas in Turkey case study: Kaçkar Mountains (Turkey). Montagnes Méditerranénnes 17, 89–90.
Komendar, V.І., 1990. Problemi rezhimu zapovіdnikh teritorіyj [Problems regime of protected areas]. Ukrainian Botanical Journal 47(6), 70–71 (in Ukrainian).
Korpel, S., 1995. Die Urwälder der Westkarpaten. Gustav Fisher, Stuttgart, Jena, New York.
Kovalchuk, A.A., Nikolajchuk, V.I., Krochko, Y.I., Bojko, M.M., 2001. Prychyny katastrofichnyx pavodkiv u Zakarpatti ta perspektyvy yixnogo unyknennya u majbutnomu [The causes of the disastrous floods in Transcarpathia and their prospects of avoiding in future]. Visn. Uzhgorod. Univ. Ser. Biol. 9, 5–20 (in Ukrainian).
Kulbachko, Y., Loza, I., Pakhomov, O., Didur, O., 2011. The zoological remediation of technogen faulted soil in the industrial region of the Ukraine Steppe zone. In: Behnassi, M. et al. (eds.), Sustainable agricultural development. Springer Science + Business Media, Dordrecht, Heidelberg, London, New York, 115–123.
Mokany, K., Harwood, T.D., Williams, K.J., Ferrier, S., 2012. Dynamic macroecology and the future for biodiversity. Glob. Change Biol. 18, 3149–3159.
Nepal, S.K., Chipeniuk, R., 2005. Mountain tourism: Toward a conceptual framework. Tourism Geographies 7(3), 313–333.
Nesteruk, Y.Y., 2003. Rekreacіyjne vikoristannya Ukraїnsjkikh Karpat u kontekstі okhoroni bіorіznomanіttya [Recreational use of Ukrainian Carpathians in the context of biodiversity conservation]. Ekologіchnі Problemi Ukraїnsjkikh Karpat 12, 273–280 (in Ukrainian).
Nikolajchuk, V.I., 1998. Oxorona dovkillya – najvazhlyvishe zavdannya sogodennya [Environmental protection is the most important task today]. Visn. Uzhgorod. Univ. Ser. Biol. 5, 104–105 (in Ukrainian).
Nikolajchuk, V.I., 2004. Ekologichnyj stan Zakarpattya. Problemy i perspektyvy [Ecological state of Transcarpathia. Problems and prospects]. Medium, Uzhgorod (in Ukrainian).
Nikolajchuk, V.I., 2007. Ekologichni problemy Karpat ta shlyakhy imovirnogo jikh podolannya [Environmental issues of Carpathians and ways to overcome them]. Visn. Uzhgorod. Univ. Ser. Biol. 21, 6–13 (in Ukrainian).
Nikolajchuk, V.I., Vakerich, M.M., Shpontak, J.M., Karpyuk, M.K., 2015. Suchasniyj stan vodnikh resursіv Zakarpattya [The current state of water resources of Transcarpathia]. Visn. Dnipropetr. Univ. Ser. Biol. Ekol. 23(2), 91–99 (in Ukrainian).
Nyssen, J., Poesen, J., Deckers, J., 2009. Land degradation and soil and water conservation in tropical highlands. Soil Till. Res. 103(2), 197–202.
Pakhomov, O.Y., Gasso, V.Y., Goloborodko, K.K., Poljakov, M.V., Grycan, Y.I., Bulakhov, V.L., Brygadyrenko, V.V., Kljuchko, Z.F., Mezhzherin, S.V., Novicky, R.O., Pysanec, Y.M., Pljushh, I.G., Ponomarenko, O.L., Puchkov, O.V., Radchenko, V.G., 2011. Chervona knyga Dnipropetrovskoi oblasti. Tvarynnyj svit [The red book of Dnipropetrovsk region. Animals]. New Print, Dnipropetrovsk (in Ukrainian).
Pickering, C.M., Hill, W., 2007. Impacts of recreation and tourism on plant biodiversity and vegetation in protected areas in Australia. Journal of Environmental Management 85, 791–800.
Pop, S.S., 2002. Pryrodni resursy Zakarpattya [Natural resources of Transcarpathia]. Spektral, Uzhgorod (in Ukrainian).
Price, M.F., Kim, E.G., 1999. Priorities for sustainable mountain development in Europe. Int. J. Sust. Dev. World 6(3), 203–219.
Raschke, N., 2005. Environmental impact assessment as a step to sustainable tourism development. WIT Transaction on Ecology and the Environment 84, 303–313.
Schad, I., Schmitter, P., Saint-Macary, С., Neef, А., Lamers, М., Nguyen, L., Hilger, Т., Hoffmann, V., 2012. Why do people not learn from flood disasters? Evidence from Vietnam’s northwestern mountains. Nat. Hazards 62(2), 221–241.
Semal, V.J. (ed.), 2014. Dopovid pro stan navkolyshnogo pryrodnogo seredovyshha Zakarpatskoyi oblasti za 2013 rik [Report on Environmental Transcarpathian region by 2013]. Departament ekologiyi ta pryrodnyh resursiv Zakarpatskoyi oblderzhadministraciyi, Uzhgorod (in Ukrainian).
Semal, V.J. (ed.), 2015. Ekologichnyj pasport Zakarpatskoyi oblasti [Environmental passport Transcarpathian region]. Departament ekologiyi ta pryrodnyh resursiv Zakarpatskoyi oblderzhadministraciyi, Uzhgorod (in Ukrainian).
Shpontak, J.M., 2014. Monitoryng dovkillya v Zakarpatskij oblasti. Informacijno-analitychnyj zvit za 2013 rik [Environmental Monitoring in Zakarpattia region. Information Analytical Report for 2013]. Departament ekologiyi ta pryrodnyh resursiv Zakarpatskoyi oblderzhadministraciyi, Uzhgorod (in Ukrainian).
Šomšák, L., Kubíček, F., Háberová, I., Majzlanová, E., 1979. The influence of tourism upon the vegetation of the High Tatras. Biológia (Bratislava) 34, 571–582.
Stojko, S.M., 2000. Prychyny katastrofichnyx pavodkiv u Zakarpatti ta systema ekologichnyx profilaktychnyx zaxodiv yix poperedzhennya [The causes of the disastrous floods in Transcarpathia and ecological system of preventive measures to prevent them]. Ukrainian Botanical Journal 57(1), 11–21 (in Ukrainian).
Stojko, S.M., 2008. Zberezhennya biologichnogo riznomanittya ta ekologichnogo balansu i pidtrymannya stalogo rozvytku v Karpatakh [Preservation of biological diversity and maintenance of ecological balance and sustainable development in the Carpathians]. Visn. Uzhgorod. Univ. Ser. Biol. 24, 5–10 (in Ukrainian).
Vološčuk, I., 1992. Biological diversity in the Carpathians. Oecol. Mont. 2, 43–47.
Walentowski, H., Schulze, E., Teodosiu, M., Bouriaud, O., von Heßberg, A., Bußler, H., Baldauf, L., Schulze, I., Wäldchen, J., Böcker, R., Herzog, S., Schulze, W., 2013. Sustainable forest management of Natura 2000 sites: A case study from a private forest in the Romanian Southern Carpathians. Ann. For. Res. 56(1), 217–245.
Zastavecka, O.V., Zastaveckyi, B.I., 1996. Geografiya Zakarpatskoyi oblasti [Geography of Transcarpathian region]. Pidruchnyky and Posibnyky, Ternopil (in Ukrainian).
Published
2016-02-27
Section
Articles