Fatty acid content of honeycombs depending on the level of technogenic loading on the environment
AbstractThe content of heavy metals, non-etherified and anionic forms of fatty acids, and also fatty acids of common lipids in honeycomb cells, obtained from hives placed in areas with high, medium and low levels of technogenic loading is investigated. The hives were located at the educational apiary of Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies named after S.Z. Gzhytskyj (area with very heavy traffic and industrial activity) and in private beekeeping farms in the town Vynnyky and the village Chyzhyky, Pustomyty district, Lviv region (areas with lower intensity of traffic and industrial activity). Our research has shown that the newly-built honeycomb cells obtained from hives placed in the territory with medium and low levels of technogenic loading contain a lower quantity of such heavy metals as iron, zinc, cuprum, chromium, nickel, lead and cadmium. The total amount of non-etherified fatty acids with even and odd number of carbon atoms in the chain, monounsaturated fatty acids of n-7 and n-9 families and polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-3 and n-6 families was higher in these honeycombs. However, the total concentration of anionic forms of fatty acids with even and odd number of carbon atoms in the chain, monounsaturated fatty acids of n-7 and n-9 families and polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-3 and n-6 families was lower in these honeycombs. Due to the above-mentioned monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids the amount of fatty acids of common lipids rises. It leads to increase in the antibacterial and antifungal properties of honeycomb cells and reduction of fragility of their walls. The greatest changes in concentration of heavy metals, non-etherified and anionic form of fatty acids, and also fatty acids of common lipids occur in the newly built honeycomb cells in the territory with low technogenic loading on the environment.
Bogdanov, G.O., Polishchuk, V.P., Rivis, J.F., Lokutova, O.A., 2003. Fatty acids of plant pollen (bee pollen) and their role in metabolic processes and bee life. The Animal Biology 5, 149–158 (in Ukrainian).
Bogdanov, G.O., Polishchuk, V.P., Rivis, J.F., Lokutova, O.A., 2005. Biological evaluation of bee pollen. Naukovyi Visnyk Lvivskoi Natsionalnoi Akademii Veterynarnoi Medytsyny imeni S.Z. Gzhytskoho 7(2), 227–239 (in Ukrainian).
Bogdanov, S., 2003. Quality and standards of pollen and beeswax. Apiacta 38(4), 334–341.
Bogdanov, S., 2006. Contaminants of bee products. Apidologie 37(1), 1–18.
Brygadyrenko, V., Ivanyshyn, V., 2015. Changes in the body mass of Megaphyllum kievense (Diplopoda, Julidae) and the granulometric composition of leaf litter subject to different concentrations of copper. J. Forest Sci. 61(9), 369–376.
Brygadyrenko, V.V., Ivanyshyn, V.М., 2014. Vlijanie soli zheleza na massu tela Megaphyllum kievense (Diplopoda, Julidae) i granulometricheskij sostav podstilki v laboratornom jeksperimente [Impact of ferric salt on body weight of Megaphyllum kievense (Diplopoda, Julidae) and litter granulometric composition in the laboratory experiment]. Vìsn. Dnìpropetr. Unìv. Ser. Bìol. Ekol. 22(1), 83–87 (in Russian).
Buchwald, R., Breed, M.D., Bjostad, L., Hibbard, B.E., Greenberg, A.R., 2009. The role of fatty acids in the mechanical properties of beeswax. Apidologie 40(5), 585–594.
Conti, M.E., Botrè, F., 2001. Honeybees and their products as potential bioindicators of heavy metals contamination. Environ. Monit. Assess. 69(3), 267–282.
Haiyan, W., Stuanes, A., 2003. Heavy metal pollution in air-water-soil-plant system of Zhuzhou city, Hunan province, China. Water Air Soil Poll. 147, 79–107.
Jenkins, T.C., Palmquist, D.L., 1982. Effect of added fat and calcium on in vitro formation of insoluble fatty acid soaps and cell wall digestibility. J. Anim. Sci. 55, 957–963.
Khavezov, I., Tsalev, D., 1983. Atomno-absorbtsionnyi analiz [Atomic absorption analysis]. Chemistry, Leningrad (in Russian).
Konоnskyy, О.І., 2006. Biokhimiia tvaryn [Biochemistry of the animals]. Vyshcha Shkola, Кyiv (in Ukrainian).
Kulbachko, Y., Loza, I., Pakhomov, O., Didur, O., 2011. The zoological remediation of technogen faulted soil in the industrial region of the Ukraine Steppe zone. In: Behnassi, M. et al. (eds.), Sustainable agricultural development. Springer Science + Business Media, Dordrecht, Heidelberg, London, New York, 115–123.
Lee, J.Y., Sohn, K.H., Rhee, S.H., Hwang, D., 2001. Saturated fatty acids, but not unsaturated fatty acids, induce the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 mediated through Toll-like receptors 4. J. Biol. Chem. 276, 16683–16689.
Loidl, A., Crailsheim, K., 2001. Free fatty acids digested from pollen and triolein in the honeybee (Apis mellifera carnica Pollmann) midgut. J. Comp. Physiol. B 171(4), 313–321.
Manning, R., 2001. Fatty acids in pollen: A review of their importance for honey bees. Bee World 82(2), 60–75.
Pashayan, S.А., 2006. Svoystva migratsii tyazhelyih metallov [Properties of heavy metal migration]. Pchelovodstvo – Beekeeping 9, 12–13 (in Russian).
Pauguel, S.C., Bert, M., Dolley, S., 1993. Antimicrobial activity of pollen. Phytochemistry 33(6), 2503–2507.
Perugini, M., Manera, M., Grotta, L., Abete, M.C., Tarasco, R., 2011. Heavy metal (Hg, Cr, Cd, and Pb) contamination in urban areas and wildlife reserves: Honeybees as bioindicators. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 140(2), 170–176.
Rivis, J.F., Fedoruk, R.S., 2010. Kilʹkisni khromatohrafichni metody vyznachennya okremykh lipidiv i zhyrnykh kyslot u biolohichnomu materiali [Quantitative chromatographic methods for determination of individual lipids and fatty acids in biological material]. Spolom, Lviv (in Ukrainian).
Saranchuk, I.I., 2013. Kontsentratsiia riznykh form zhyrnykh kyslot u tkanynakh cherevtsia medonosnykh bdzhil zalezhno vid ekolohichnykh umov dovkillia [Concentration of different forms fatty acids in the tissues of the abdomen of melliferous bees depending on the ecological conditions of the environment]. Scientific Journal Askania-Nova 6, 251–257 (in Ukrainian).
Suárez, A., Faus, M.J., Gil, A., 1996. Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids modify heart, kidney, and lung fatty acid composition in weanling rats. Lipids 31(3), 345–348.
Tan, K., Liu, X., Dong, S., Wang, C., Oldroyd, B.P., 2015. Pheromones affecting ovary activation and ovariole loss in the Asian honey bee Apis cerana. J. Insect Physiol. 74, 25–29.
Tsvetkova, N.M., Pakhomov, O.Y., Serdyuk, S.M., Yakyba, M.S., 2016. Biologichne riznomanittja Ukrajiny. Dnipropetrovs'ka oblast'. Grunty. Metaly u gruntah [Bіological diversity of Ukraine. The Dnipropetrovsk region. Soils. Metalls in the soils]. Lira, Dnipropetrovsk (in Ukrainian).
Vikram Reddy, M., Satpathy, D., Dhiviya, K.S., 2013. Assessment of heavy metals (Cd and Pb) and micronutrients (Cu, Mn, and Zn) of paddy (Oryza sativa L.) field surface soil and water in a predominantly paddy-cultivated area at Puducherry (Pondicherry, India), and effects of the agricultural runoff on the elemental concentrations of a receiving rivulet. Environ. Monit. Assess. 185(8), 6693–6704.
Vymazal, J., Březinova, T., 2016. Accumulation of heavy metals in aboveground biomass of Phragmites australis in horizontal flow constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: A review. Chemical Engineering Journal 290, 232–242.