Variability of the morphometric features of Calliphora vicina (Diptera, Calliphoridae) under the varying and constant micro-climatic condi-tions
AbstractVariability of the main morphometric features of imago flies Calliphora vicina R.-D. (Diptera, Calliphoridae) of two samples was studied. First sample consists of individuals caught in the wild (park ecosystems of Dnipropetrovsk), the second one – specimens cultured in the laboratory under the constant temperature and humidity. Possible using of C. vicina R.-D. as a bioindicator of anthropogenic factors is analysed. Environmental factors may act as the stimulators of adaptive changes in physiological functions, as the constraints that cause impossibility of the existence of certain species in particular conditions, and as modifiers that determine the morpho- anatomical and physiological changes in organisms. The most significant differences between studied samples were found for the width (“laboratory” individuals are characterized by larger head size) and for the length of limbs segments. The fluctuating range of the head width in specimens collected in the wild is much wider, due to the heterogeneity of the micro-climatic conditions of the larvae development and trophic resources. Maximal negative asymmetry of the head width is observed in individuals C. vicina R.-D. of the “natural” sample as compared with “laboratory” individuals. Among imagoes caught in the wild the individuals with a relatively wide head are dominated, as evidenced by the large positive value of kurtosis. At the same time, the distribution of values in “laboratory” individuals is almost normal. In adults bred in the laboratory the shortening of segments of the leg pair I is observed in comparison with the individuals of “natural” sample. Similar results were recorded for other insect groups cultivated in a laboratory. For most other linear measurements of the C. vicina R.-D. body the differences between samples are not registered. Ephemeral existence of the substrate of blow flies leads to higher prevailing evolutionary adaptation of species to varying micro-climatic conditions inside cadaveric material. A minor variation of morphometric characteristics indicates the resistance to changes in abiotic environmental factors. Thus, use of Calliphora vicina R.-D. (in the temperature range of +17…+28 °C) as an indicator species of changes in the environmental temperature factor is not appropriate.
Butovskij, R.O., Gongal'skij, K.B., 1999. Use of population’s morphometric parameters for anthropogenous action level estimation [Ispol'zovanie morfometricheskih parametrov populjacii dlja ocenki urovnja antropogennogo vozdejstvija]. Bioindikacija Radioaktivnyh Zagrjaznenij, 308–319.
De Jong, G.D., 1994. An annotated checklist of the Calliphoridae (Diptera) of Colorado, with notes on carrion associations and forensic importance. J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 67, 378–385.
Denno, R.F., Cothran, W.R., 1976. Competitive interactions and ecological strategies of sarcophagid and calliphorid flies inhabiting rabbit carrion. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 69, 109–113.
Faly, L.І., 2009. Plasticity of morphometric features of Philonthus spinipes (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) in experimental conditions [Plastichnіst' morfometrichnih oznak Philonthus spinipes (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) v umovah eksperimentu]. Pitannja Bіoіndikacії ta Ekologіi 4(2), 175–181.
Hückesfeld, S., Niederegger, S., Schlegel, P., Heinzel, H.-G., Spie, R., 2011. Feel the heat: The effect of temperature on development, behavior and central pattern generation in 3rd instar Calliphora vicina larvae. J. Insect Physiol. 57(1), 136–146. >> doi:10.1016/j.jinsphys.2010.10.002
Kachalova, O.L., 1992. The motor transport emission effect to natural environment [Vozdejstvie vybrosov avtotransporta na prirodnuju sredu]. Moscow, Nauka (in Russian).
Lobanov, A.M., 1984. Potential production, types of egg ripening and oviposition types of flies families Fanniidae and Calliphoridae [Potencial'naja plodovitost', tipy sozrevanija i otkladki jaic u muh semejstva Fanniidae i Calliphoridae]. Dvukrylye Nasekomye. MGU, 58–69.
Marchenko, M.I., Vinogradova, Y.B., 1984. The temperature seasonal changes influence to speed of corpse destruction by fly maggots [Vlijanie sezonnyh izmenenij temperatury na skorost' razrushenija trupa lichinkami muh]. Sud.-Med. Ekspertiza 4, 11–14.
Melecis, V.P., Spungis, V.V., Shternbergs, M.T., 1981. The indicative significance of soil invertebrates into industrial conditions [Indikacionnoe znachenie pochvennyh bespozvonochnyh v uslovijah industrial'nogo zagrjaznenija]. Problemy Pochvennoj Zoologii. Radjans'ke Zakarpattja. 136–137.
Nunes, M.V., Kenny, N.A.P., Saunders, D.S., 1990. The photoperiodic clock in the blowfly Calliphora vicina. J. Insect Physiol. 36(1), 61–67. >> doi:10.1016/0022-1910(90)90151-5
Ozerov, A.L., 1989. To research of the USSR Far East corpse flies [K izucheniju trupnyh muh Dal'nego Vostoka SSSR]. Arhiv Zoologich. Muzeja Moskov. Gos. In-ta 27, 114–142.
Saunders, D.S, Hayward, S.A.L., 1998. Geographical and diapause-related cold tolerance in the blow fly, Calliphora vicina. J. Insect Physiol. 44(7–8), 541–551. >> doi:10.1016/S0022-1910(98)00049-3
Saunders, D.S., Hong Seau-Feng, 2000. Effects of temperature and temperature-steps on circadian locomotor rhythmicity in the blow fly Calliphora vicina. J. Insect Physiol. 46(3), 289–295. >> doi:10.1016/S0022-1910(99)00182-1
Viktorov-Nabokov, O.V., Verves, J.G., 1974. Flies of families Muscidae, Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae in synanthropic complexes of Ukraine [Muhi semejstva Muscidae, Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae v sinantropnyh kompleksah Ukrainy]. Mater. VII sezda VJO, 4/1, 210.
Watters, H.G, Saunders, D.S., 1997. Inheritance of the photoperiodic response controlling larval diapause in the blow fly, Calliphora vicina. J. Insect Physiol. 43(8), 709–717 >> doi:10.1016/S0022-1910(97)00051-6