Chemical composition of essential oil and antimicrobial properties of Chrysantemum coronarium (Asteraceae)

Keywords: garland chrysanthemum, сhromatographic analysis, extract, microorganisms, antimicrobial activity


Garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.), or edible chrysanthemum, is a valuable food, medicinal, decorative plant, containing a considerable amount of biologically active substances. The herb is widely used as a dietary food in South-East Asia, whereas in spite of being spread throughout Ukraine, it is known there rather as a decorative than a vegetable plant. Introductory studies of C. coronarium were conducted on experimental plots at the Botanical Gardens of Zhytomyr National Agroecological University, which is located in Ukrainian Polesia. Chromatographic analysis of the essential oil composition was performed on the gas-liquid chromatographer Agilent Technologies 6890 with mass spectrometric detector 5973. The material for chromatographic studies was represented by C. coronarium inflorescences. The antimicrobial properties of the ethanolic extract from the areal parts of C. coronarium were studied on test-cultures, collected from the Ukrainian Collection of Microorganisms (UCM, Institute of Microbiology and Virology of NAS Ukraine), the test-cultures being: Escherichia coli UCM B-906 (ATCC 25922), Staphilococcus aureus UCM B-904 (ATCC 25923), Pseudomonas aeruginosa UCM B-900 (ATCC 9027), Candida albicans UCM Y-1918 (ATCC 885-653). The antimicrobial effect of the investigated substances was studied by the method of serial successive dilutions which determined minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC). This article shows the results of chromatographic analysis of essential oil obtained from C. coronarium inflorescences and focuses on antimicrobial activity of the herb against the test cultures of the following microorganisms: E. coli, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, C. albicans. In the essential oil 26 compounds have been determined, 23 of which have been identified, the major components being: chrysanthemyl acetate (24.4%), chrysanthemol (21.8%), chrysanthenyl acetate (7.6%), camphor (7.3%), β-farnesene (5.9%), α-bisabolol (5.6%). C. coronarium ethanolic extract showed antimicrobial activity against gram-positive strains of S. aureus. In comparison with the solvent, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) increased 4 and 2 times, respectively. We have observed only fungistatic activity against the fungus C. albicans – MBC values showed a twofold increase compared with the solvent. Inhibitory, bactericidal/fungicidal properties of the extract against gram-negative strains of E. coli and P. aeruginosa have not been detected. The experimental data prove that there is a good perspective for further study and application of C. coronarium in pharmacy and the food industry. 


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