Physiological age of female blood-sucking midges (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) in the south of Tyumen oblast


  • O. A. Fiodorova All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Veterinary Entomology and Arachnology – Branch of Federal State Institution Federal Research Centre Tyumen Scientific Centre of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0589-2373
Keywords: Culicoides; gonotrophic cycle; southern taiga subzone

Abstract

Despite the fact the fact that biting midges (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) are abundant blood-sucking insects in a number of areas of Siberia and the Far East, their biology in Russia and abroad is poorly studied. The objective of our research was physiological age of female midges in the subzone of southern taiga of Tyumen Oblast. Physiological age of female midges was determined using the method of V. P. Polovodova and T. S. Detinova, suggested for mosquitoes, modified for midges, in relation to the number of the yellow bodies – enlarged ovarioles. The conducted studies focused on physiological age of females of three species of midges of the subgenus Avaritia (Culicoides punctatus, C. fascipennis, C. grisescens), which occur in the forest zone of the southern taiga subzone. The species are abundant blood-sucking insects. Mostly, they complete one gonotrophic cycle, but by the end of the season, the number of females which had laid eggs twice reached 20–30%. Part (10–22%) of the female population does not succeed in completing even a single gonotrophic cucle. In spite of colder weather in the end of summer, a rejuvenation of the population was observed, which occured due to death of physiologically old females. Comparison of changes in number and age composition of females allows us to state that the first two species have two, and the third – one generation during a season. Determination of physiological age of females or the number of gonotrophic cycles they complete, and therefore, the extent of their biting, is a subject of not only theoretical but also practical interest for assessing the epidemiological situation in the areas where midges are vectors of a number of infectious and invasive diseases, such as tularemia, onchocerciasis, bluetongue virus or febris catarrhalis ovium, and Schmallenberg virus. This indicates the relevance of studying density of population vectors of infections. In the Russian Federation, such research unfortunately has only been conducted within the scope of narrow studies, and only in certain regions.

References

Amasova, I. S. (1959). O gonotroficheskih otnosheniyah mokrecov roda Culicoides (Diptera, Heleidae) [On gonothrophic relationships of midgets Culicoides (Diptera, Heleidae) type]. The Entomological Review, 38(4), 774–789 (in Russian).
Birley, M. N., & Boorman, J. P. (1982). Estimatic the sulvival and biting rutes of haematophagous insect, with particular reference to the Culicoides obsoletus Graup. (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) in Sourhern Endland. Journal of Animal Ecology, 551(1), 135–148.
Bradley, A., Mullens, E., & Schmidtmann, T. (1982). The gonotrophic cycle of Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and its implications in age-grading field populations in New York State, USA. Journal of Medical Entomology, 19(3), 340–349.
Detinova, T. S. (1949). Fiziologicheskie izmeniniya yaichnikov u samok An. ma-culipennis Meig. [The physiological changes in females ovaries of the An. maculipennis Meig. type]. Medicinskaya Parazitologiya, 18(4), 410–413 (in Russian).
Detinova, T. S., & Rasnicin, S. P. (1978). Unifikaciya metodov ucheta chislenno¬sti krovososushchih dvukrylyh nasekomyh [Unification of methods of acco-unting of number of blood-sucking dipterous insects]. Medicinskaya Parazi-tologiya, 47(5), 84–92 (in Russian).
Dyce, A. L. (1969). The recognization of nulliparous and parous Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) without dissection. Australian Enomological Society, 8, 11–15.
Edwards, P. B. (1982). Laboratory observations on the biology and life cycle of the Australian biting midges Culicoides subimmaculatus (Diptera: Ceratopo-gonidae). Journal of Medical Entomology, 19(5), 545–552.
Filimonova, S. A., & Brodskaya, N. K. (1998). Ul'trostrukturnoe issledovanie oogeneza krovososushchih mokrecov roda Culicoides Latr. (Diptera, Cerato-pogonidae) [Ultrastructural research of oogenesis of blood-sucking midgets Culicoides Latr. (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) type]. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie, 4, 737–752 (in Russian).
Gluhova, V. M. (1958). O gonotroficheskom cikle u mokrecov roda Culicoides (Diptera, Heleidae) v Karel'skoj ASSR [On gonotrophic cycles of midgets Culicoides (Diptera, Heleidae) in Karelian АSSR]. Parazitologicheskij Sbornik Zoologicheskogo Instituta AN SSSR, 18, 239–254 (in Russian).
Gluhova, V. M. (1989). Krovososushchie mokrecy rodov Culicoides i Forcipo-myia (Ceratopogonidae) [Blood-sucking midgets of Culicoides and Forcipo-myia (Ceratopogonidae)]. Nauka, Leningrad (in Russian).
Gornostaeva, R. M. (1978). Biologiya nekotoryh vidov krovososushchih mokre-cov (Ceratopogonidae) na yuge Krasnoyarskogo kraya [Biology of some species of blood-sucking midges (Ceratopogonidae) in the south of the Krasnoyarsk Territory]. Parasitology, 12(4), 297–305 (in Russian).
Isaev, V. A. (1972). Chislennost' i vozrastnoj sostav samok krovososushchih mo-krecov roda Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) [The number and age composition of female blood-sucking midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)]. Medicinskaya Parazitologiya, 41(5), 614–617 (in Russian).
Linley, J. R. (1966). The ovarian cycle in Culicoides barbosai Wirth & Blanton and C. furens (Poey) (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae). Bulluten of Entomogical Research, 57(1), 1–17.
Linley, J. R. (1985). Biting midges (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) as vectors of nonvilar animal pathoges. Journal Medicine Entomologi, 22(6), 589–599.
Lysyk, T. J. (2007). Seasonal abundance, parity, and survival of adult Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) in Southern Alberta, Canada. Journal of Medical Entomology, 44(6), 959–969.
Lysyk, T. J., & Danyk, T. (2007). Effect of tempetature on life history parameters of adult Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) in relation to geographic origin and vectoriol capacity for Bluetongue virus. Journal of Medical Entomology, 44(5), 741–751.
Mirzaeva, A. G. (1963). O faune mokrecov Priob'ya [On the fauna of midges in Ob river region]. Trudy Biologicheskogo Instituta Sibirskogo Otdeleniya Akademii Nauk SSSR, 82–87 (in Russian).
Mirzaeva, A. G. (1974). Krovososushchie mokrecy (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) Tunkinskoj kotloviny [Blood-sucking midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) of the Tunka basin]. Nauka, Novosibirsk. Pp. 110–115 (in Russian).
Mullens, B. A., & Schmidtmann, E. T. (1982). The gonotrophic cycle of Culicoi¬des varipennis (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) and its implications in age-grou¬ping field populations in New York State, USA. Journal Medicine Entomologi, 19(3), 340–349.
Ogorodnov, E. A. (Ed.). (1971). Atlas Tyumenskoj oblasti [The Atlas of Tyumen Region]. Tyumen (in Russian).
Polovodova, V. P. (1949). Opredelenie fiziologicheskogo vozrasta samki Anopheles, to est' chislo prodelannyh gonotroficheskih ciklov [The identification of phy¬siological age of a female Anopheles as a number of finished gonothrophic cycles]. Medicinskaya Parazitologiya, 7(4), 352–355 (in Russian).
Rihtera, G. D. (Ed.). (1963). The Western Siberia. The USSR Academy of Scien¬ces, Moscow.
Schmidtmann, E. T., & Washino, R. K. (1982). Gonotrophic age structure of host-seeking Leptoconops carteri (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) populations in North-Central California. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 75(5), 507–512. http://doi.org/10.1093/aesa/75.5.507
Shevchenko, A. K. (1977). Krovosisni mokreci (Ceratopogonidae, Leptoconopi-dae) [Blood-sucking midges (Ceratopogonidae, Leptoconopidae)]. Nauka, Dumka, Kyiv (in Ukrainian).
Sprygin, A. V., Fiodorova, O. A., & Babin, Y. Y., Kononov, A. V., Karaulov, A. K. (2015). Blood-sucking midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and their role in spreading blumtang and Schmallenberg diseases in Russia. Agrobiology, 50(2), 183–197 (in Russian).
Sprygin, A. V., Fiodorova, O. A., Babin, Y. Y., Pavelko, V., Bellis, G., & Kono¬nov, A. (2016). The fluctuations of seasonal population of Culicoides midges in the Smolenskay, Pskovskaya and Vladimirskaya provinces of Western Russia in 2013. Veterinaria Italiana, 52(3–4), 231–234.
Tarasenkov, G. N. (1964). Na otkrytyh prostranstvah rek Ob' i Irtysh (Priroda, byt i kul'tura Tyumenskoj oblasti) [On open spaces of Ob and Irtysh rivers (Nature, household and culture of Tyumen region)]. Moscow (in Russian).
Zimmerman Robert., H., & Turner, E. C. Jr. (1984). Dispersal and gonotrophic age of Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) at an isolated site in Southwestern Virginia, USA. Journal of Medical Entomology, 21(5), 527–535.
Published
2018-07-19
Section
Articles