Technogenic impact on physiological and cytogenic indices of reproductive organs of Tilia genus representatives
AbstractThis paper addresses the problem of technogenic pollution which is a dramatic stress-factor for plants effectively acting as a green filter for cleaning air, water, and soil. It results in their growth rate changes, seasonal development speed deviations and plant appearance variations. Green belt to consume industrial emissions and to create the esthetic look seems to be an urgent matter to deal with technogenic pollution. Lime tree decorative characteristics depend significantly on the state of their reproductive organs (flower, inflorescence and fruit). On the other hand, biometric indices of woody plant reproductive organs are sensitive parameters characterizing the plant response to pollutants. The study discusses complex environmental pollution impact caused by sulfur (IV) and nitrogen (IV) oxides as well as heavy metals on physiological and cytogenetic characteristics of reproductive organs of Tіlia L. genus representatives in conditions of steppe Prydniprovye. The research objectives were T. amurensis L. аnd T. cordаta Mill. Samples were collected in May and June 2014 on two sample areas. The research area borders with both heavy traffic road and Interpipe NTRP CJSC, Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine, that features such pollutants as SO2, NO2, iron, manganese, zinc, mercury, chrome. The control area is located in the Botanical garden of Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University. The research proved that biometric and cytogenetic parameters of generic organo of Tilia genus representatives were dramatically sensitive to the impact of pollutants. Moreover, T. cordаta was the most sensitive among species under study to multicomponent environmental pollution when assessed by criteria of suppression of woody plant reproductive capacity formation. The other benefit of this study consisted in monitoring of the blossom rate of both species that appeared to scale down substantially in the technogenic environment. Man-induced stress factors caused lower rates of a range of lime generic parameters, for example, petal length and number of a model flowers. Besides, T. cordаta model flower had also the shorter stamen. The results obtained proved that technogenic environment undermined fertile ability of pollen grains of both research objects, though the most affected species was T. cordаta. The paper offers practical applications to complete environment phyto-indication and monitoring of condition of Tіlia genus plants with the help of the suggested test parameters (blossom rate and pollen-grain fertility (test object T. cordаta) under conditions of constant influence of SO2, NO2 and heavy metals.
Bessonova, V.P., Bessonov, Е.P., Zverkovsky, V.M., 2013. Otsinka stanu pylku derevnykh roslyn v urbatehnogenniy ekosystemi [Assessment of arborescent pollen state in urbatehnogenic ecosystem]. Pitannya Bioindicatsii ta Ecologyi 18(1), 1–17 (in Ukrainian).
Bessonova, V.P., Gritzay, Z.V., Iusypiva, T.I., 1996. Ispolzovanie tsitogeteticheskikh kriteriev mutagennosti industralnykh pollutantov [Use of cytogenetic criteria for assessment of industrial pollutants mutagenity]. Cytology and Genetics 30(5), 70–76 (in Russian).
Bessonova, V.P., Iusypiva, T.I., 2001. Semennoie vozobnovlenie drevesnykh rasteniy i promyshlennyie pollutanty (SO2 i NO2) [Seed regeneration of woody plants and industrial pollutants (SO2 and NO2)]. Zaporizhya University Press, Zaporizhya (in Russian).
Bobyliov, Y.P., Brygadyrenko, V.V., Bulakhov, V.L., Gaichenko, V.A., Gasso, V.Y., Didukh, Y.P., Ivashov, A.V., Kucheriavyi, V.P., Maliovanyi, M.S., Mytsyk, L.P., Pakhomov, O.Y., Tsaryk, I.V., Shabanov, D.A., 2014. Ecologija [Ecology]. Folio, Kharkiv (in Ukrainian).
Glibovytska, N., 2013. Vpliv urbanіzovanogo seredovishha na іntensivnіst plodonoshennja ta masu vegetativnih і generativnih organіv lipy sercelistoji [The impact of urbanized environment on fruiting intensity and vegetative and generative organs mass of the small-leaved linden (Tilia cordata L.)]. Vіsn. Lviv. Unіv. Ser. Bіol. 62, 146–151 (in Ukrainian).
Gluhov, O.Z., Mashtaler, O.V., 2007. Brіoіndikacіja tehnogennogo zabrudnennja navkolishn’ogo seredovishha pіvdennogo shodu Ukrajiny [Brioindication of technogenic environmental pollution of South East of Ukraine]. Nord-Pres, Doneck (in Ukrainian).
Grishko, V.М., 2006. Zhittezdatnіst’ pilku derevnih roslyn za dіi ftorvmіsnyh promislovih vykydіv [The viability of the tree pollen under conditions of fluoride industrial emissions]. Mater. Mіzhnar. Nauk. Konf. “Іntrodukcіja ta zahist roslin u botanіchnih sadah ta dendroparkah”. Jugo-Vostok, Doneck, 201–203 (in Ukrainian).
Grishko, V.М., Mashtaler N.V., 2009. Vpliv zabrudnennya na formuvannya generativnoї sphery deyakih vydіv Penstemon Schmidel v umovahkkh promyslovoho maidanchyka gіrnicho-zbagachuvalnogo pіdpriemstva [Pollution affect on formation of generative ability of some of Penstemon Schmidel species under conditions of mining enterprise industrial site]. Plant Introduction 1, 73–79 (in Ukrainian).
Gritzay, Z.V., 2012. Harakteristiki cvіtіnnja derevnih roslin v umovah metalurgіjnogo pіdpriemstva [Blossoming characteristics of woody plants in metallurgical works conditions]. News of Biosphere Reserve “Askania Nova” 14, 547–550 (in Ukrainian).
Gritzay, Z.V., Denisenko, A.G., 2011. Nasіnneva produktivnіst derevnih roslin v umovah zabrudnennja dovkіllja vikidami metalurgіjnogo pіdpriemstva [Seed production of woody plants in conditions of environment pollution by metallurgical industry emissions]. Vіsn. Dnіpropetr. Unіv. Ser. Bіol. Ekol. 19(2), 40–44 (in Ukrainian).
Gritzay, Z.V., Iusypiva, T.I., 2000. Formuvannja generativnih brunok derevnih roslin v umovah promislovogo zabrudnennja [The formation of plants generative buds in industrial pollution conditions]. Mater. 12 Mіzhnar. konf. “Vivchennja ontogenezu roslin prirodnih і kulturnih flor u botanіchnih zakladah і dendroparkah Jevrazії”. Poltava, 87–89 (in Ukrainian).
Erofeeva, E.A., 2014. Dependence of drooping birch (Betula pendula) and lime tree (Tilia cordata) relative seed production as a new seed production index on the intensity of motor traffic pollution. Adv. Environ. Biol. 8(13), 282–286.
Jusypiva, T., 2011. Woody undergrowth: Stem anatomy and industrial SO2 and NO2 pollution. NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW): “Environmental and food safety in southeast Europe and Ukraine”. Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine, 57–58.
Кulagin, A.A., Shagieva, J.А., 2005. Drevesnye rastenija i biologicheskaja konservacija promyshlennyh zagrjaznitelej [Woody plants and biological preservation of industrial pollutants]. Nauka, Moscow (in Russian).
Mylenka, M., Parpan, V., 2010. The wood plants pollen anomality under the conditions of the urbotechnogenic ecosystem. ХII Dni Alergii Pylkowej w Krakowie. Konferencij Naukowo-Szkoleniowa. Krakow. 21–24.
Nosko, P., Brassard, P., Kramer, J.R., Kershaw, K.A., 1988. The effect of aluminum on seed germination and early seedlings establishment, growth, and respiration on white spruce (Picea glauca). Can. J. Bot. 66(11), 2305–2310.
Pausheva, Z.P., 1988. Praktikum po cytologii [Tutoral on Plant Cytology]. Agropromizdat, Moscow (in Russian).
Pakhomov, O.Y., Brygadyrenko, V.V., 2005. Koncepcija systemy zahodiv z ohorony navkolyshn'ogo pryrodnogo seredovyshha Dnipropetrovs'koi' oblasti na 2005–2015 roky [Concept of system for actions on environment protection in Dnipropetrovsk region for 2005–2015]. Vìsn. Dnìpropetr. Unìv. Ser. Bìol. Ekol. 13(1), 213–225.
Ponomaryova, O.A., Bessonova, V.P., 2009. Vpliv rostu lip u lunkax v asfalti pridoroghnoi zoni na pokazniki asimiljacijnogo aparatu [The influence of growth T. cordata and T. pla¬typhyllos in hole into the asphalt of roadside zone of size the morphometrix indicators of assimilation system]. Pitannya Bioindicatsii ta Ecologyi 14(2), 55–62 (in Ukrainian).
Seta-Koselska, A., Szczuka, E., Skórzyńska-Polit, E., Domaciuk, M., Goewanowska, I., 2014. Roadside Larch trees (Larix Mill.) and its female generative organs as a biomonitor of air pollution. Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 23(3), 867–874.
Smith, Y.Н., 1985. Les i atmosfera [Forest and atmosphere]. Progress, Moscow (in Russian).
Shparyk, Y.S., Parpan, V.I., 2004. Heavy metal pollution and forest health in the Ukrainian Carpathians. Env. Poll. 130, 55–63. >> doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2003.10.030
Strіletz, R.O., 2014. Ekologіchnij pasport Dnіpropetrovs’koi oblastі [Ecological passport of Dnipropetrovsk region] (in Ukrainian).