Effect of proquinazid and copper hydroxide on homeostasis of anions in winter wheat plants in generative phase of development
AbstractThe study deals with the effect of proquinazid and copper oxide application on structural characteristics and resistance of wheat to powdery mildew, as well as remobilisation and redistribution of anions pools at generative stage of development. The trial series was conducted in the experimental agricultural production of the Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Field experiments were carried out with Smuglyanka variety of winter wheat. The trial series included the application of fungicides such as Talius (proquinazid, 200 g/L) 0,25 L/ha and Kocide 2000 (copper hydroxide, 350 g/kg) 150 and 300 g/ha, and combination of both fungicides. Sprays were applied at tillering stage in autumn in the first trial series and at tillering-booting stage in spring in the second one. Assessment of affected plants by powdery mildew was carried out visually in points. Anion concentration was determined with the use of ion chromatography. Application of fungicides at tillering stage increases the amount of productive stems in wheat plants. The highest effect was recorded for application of copper hydroxide at dose of 300 g/ha in autumn. Analysis of plants affected by powdery mildew shows that application of proquinazid and its composition with copper hydroxide provides sustained protection against Blumeria graminis (DC) Speer. Application of fungicides at tillering stage contributes to increase of the pool of free nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur anions in leaf tissues compared to control. These changes in anion composition may be caused by fungicide effect on activity of N, P, S transporters, as well as internal regulatory mechanisms of elements’ uptake by plants. Comparing the results of the autumn and spring application of fungicides should note the increase in concentration of free phosphates in wheat leaves in the 2nd trial with proquinazid and its composition with copper hydroxide. Accumulation of nitrogen in the nitrate form occur in the period of maximum activity of plants during grain maturation, that is why the increase of free nitrates concentration in all trial series may indicate the remobilization of nitrogen from vegetative organs to caryopsis. Analysis of wheat ear of the 1st trial shows increase in concentrations of free nitrates and phosphates in all trial series which may be explained by intensification of metabolic processes that occur in the ear during grain maturation. Comparison of results of 1st and 2nd trials shows the decrease of Cl concentration in plants of the 2nd trial which can be associated with extension of photosynthetic activity of leaves and participation of element in oxidative phosphorylation, as well as its binding with polypeptides belonging to photolysis complex of water of photosystem II. Thus, application of proquinazid and copper hydroxide at tillering stage increases the productive tillering capacity and enhances the pools of N, P, S free anions in winter wheat plants. These changes can be explained by the effect of fungicides on plant metabolic processes associated with remobilization and transport of elements from flag leaves to the ears during grain maturation. Autumn application of fungicides provides an excellent protection level against powdery mildew of winter wheat plants and creates optimal conditions for plants’ development and wintering. Treatment of plants in spring is highly effective against powdery mildew at tillering-booting stage.
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