Seasonal dynamics of Diptera in individual biotopes in the center of the European part of Russia

  • A. B. Ruchin Joint Directorate of the Mordovia State Nature Reserve and National Park “Smolny”
  • M. N. Esin Joint Directorate of the Mordovia State Nature Reserve and National Park “Smolny”
Keywords: insects; number; phenological changes; Republic of Mordovia; Mordovia State Nature Reserve.


In a changing climate, phenological observations are gaining new importance. They can tell what changes are taking place in certain environmental conditions. The studies were conducted in 2019 within the territory of the Republic of Mordovia (the center of the European part of Russia). Beer traps (beer as a bait) were used to collect Diptera. The material was collected in the period from April to October in different forest biotopes (pine forest, lime forest, aspen forest, birch forest and oak forest) and the air temperature was recorded at the same time. In total, more than 14.000 specimens of Diptera were recorded. Overall, 29 families were recorded. The largest number of families was observed for birch (23 families) and pine (24 families) forests, the smallest number – in aspen forest (16 families). The families Muscidae, Drosophilidae, Calliphoridae had the largest number of captured individuals (44.5%, 35.2%, 7.6% of the total number of individuals respectively). The highest number of individuals was captured in oak forest. The dynamics of abundance in all biotopes were similar and were characterized by the same number of declines and rises. The first small significant peak in the number of Diptera occurred in the first half of summer. A slight increase in the number of specimenі occurred in mid-June. In the second half of September, there was a gradual increase in the number and the maximum peak was recorded in mid-October, then there was a decline. The autumn increase in the number of Diptera in all five biotopes exceeded the summer peak by several times. This dynamic was typical for most families. However, species from the family Lonchaeidae had the peak in July. For our better understanding of the changes in the seasonal dynamics of the number of Diptera, long-term observations in different climatic zones are needed.


Abbes, K., Hafsi, A., Harbi, A., Mars, M., & Chermiti, B. (2021). The black fig fly Silba adipata (Diptera: Lonchaeidae) as an emerging pest in Tunisia: Prelimi-nary data on geographic distribution, bioecology and damage. Phytoparasitica, 49, 49–59.

Altermatt, F. (2012). Temperature‐related shifts in butterfly phenology depend on the habitat. Global Change Biology, 18, 2429–2438.

Altunsoy, F., & Kiliç, A. Y. (2012). Seasonal abundance of horse fly (Diptera: Tabanidae) in Western Anatolia. Journal Entomological Research Society, 14(1), 95–105.

Barkalov, A. V., & Khruleva, O. A. (2021). Hoverflies (Diptera, Syrphidae) of Wrangel Island (Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia). Nature Conservation Research, 6(1), 78–87.

Bizzo, L., Gottschalk, M. S., De Toni, D. C., & Hofmann, P. R. P. (2010). Seasonal dynamics of a drosophilid (Diptera) assemblage and its potencial as bioindicator in open environments. Iheringia, 100(3), 185–191.

Blackshaw, R. P., & Esbjerg, P. (2017). Statistical indicators for insects caught in the development trap. Journal Applied Entomology, 142, 272–276.

Bogojevic, M. S., Merdic, E., Turic, N., Jeličic, Ž., Zahirovic, Ž., Vrucina, I., & Merdic, S. (2009). Seasonal dynamics of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Osijek (Croatia) for the period 1995–2004. Biologia, 64, 760–767.

Brooks, S. J., Self, A., Powney, G. D., Pearse, W. D., Penn, M., & Paterson, G. L. J. (2017). The influence of life history traits on the phenological response of Brit-ish butterflies to climate variability since the late‐19th century. Ecography, 40, 1152–1165.

Carrero, D. A., Melo, D., Uribe, S., & Wyckhuys, K. A. G. (2013). Population dynamics of Dasiops inedulis (Diptera: Lonchaeidae) and its biotic and abiotic mortality factors in Colombian sweet passionfruit orchards. Journal Pest Science, 86, 437–447.

Chen, W., Yang, L., Ren, L., Shang, Y., Wang, S., & Guo, Y. (2019). Impact of constant versus fluctuating temperatures on the development and life history parameters of Aldrichina grahami (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Insects, 10(7), 184.

Chick, L. D., Strickler, S., Perez, A., Martin, R. A., & Diamond, S. E. (2019). Urban heat islands advance the timing of reproduction in a social insect. Journal Ther-mal Biology, 80, 119–125.

Coutinho-Silva, R., Montes, M., Oliveira, G., Carvalho-Neto, F., Rohde, C., & Garcia, A. (2017). Effects of seasonality on drosophilids (Insecta, Diptera) in the northern part of the Atlantic Forest, Brazil. Bulletin Entomological Research, 107(5), 634–644.

da Mata, R. A., Valadão, H., & Tidon, R. (2015). Spatial and temporal dynamics of drosophilid larval assemblages associated to fruits. Revista Brasileira De Ento-mologia, 59(1), 50–57.

Denlinger, D. L. (1980). Seasonal and annual variation in insect abundance in the Nairobi National Park, Kenya. Biotropica, 12, 100–106.

Dufek, M. I., Oscherov, E. B., Damborsky, M. P., & Mulieri, P. R. (2019). Calliphoridae (Diptera) in human-transformed and wild habitats: Diversity and seasonal fluctuations in the humid Chaco Ecoregion of South America. Journal Medical Entomology, 56(3), 725–736.

Dvořák, L., Dvořáková, K., Oboňa, J., & Ruchin, A. B. (2020). Selected Diptera families caught with beer traps in the Republic of Mordovia (Russia). Nature Conservation Research, 5(4), 65–77.

Ganeva, D., & Kalmushka, M. (2019). Seasonal abundance of horse flies (Diptera, Tabanidae) in the Chirpan Eminences, Bulgaria. Trakia Journal of Sciences, 1, 34–41.

Godwin, R. M., Mayer, D. G., Brown, G. W., Leemon, D. M., & James, P. J. (2017). Predicting nuisance fly outbreaks on cattle feedlots in subtropical Australia. Animal Production Science, 58(2), 343–349.

Hallett, C. S., Hobday, A. J., Tweedley, J. R., Thompson, P. A., McMahon, K., & Valesini, F. J. (2018). Observed and predicted impacts of climate change on the estuaries of South-Western Australia, a Mediterranean climate region. Regional Environmental Change, 18, 1357–1373.

Handley, K., Hough-Goldstein, J., Hanks, L. M., Millar, J. G., & D’Amico, V. (2015). Species richness and phenology of cerambycid beetles in urban forest fragments of Northern Delaware. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 108(3), 251–262.

Harvey, J. A., Heinen, R., Gols, R., & Thakur, M. P. (2020). Climate change-mediated temperature extremes and insects: From outbreaks to breakdowns. Global Change Biology, 26, 6685– 6701.

Höök, T. O., Foley, C. J., Collingsworth, P., Dorworth, L., Fisher, B., Hoverman, J. T., LaRue, E., Pyron, M., & Tank, J. (2020). An assessment of the potential impacts of climate change on freshwater habitats and biota of Indiana, USA. Climatic Change, 163, 1897–1916.

Johnsey, R. L., Nagel, W. P., & Rudinsky, J. A. (1965). The Diptera Medetera aldrichii Wheeler (Dolichopodidae) and Lonchaea furnissi McAlpine (Lon-chaeidae) associated with the Douglas-fir beetle in Western Oregon and Wash-ington. Canadian Entomologist, 97(5), 521–527.

Kinjo, H., Kunimi, Y., & Nakai, M. (2014). Effects of temperature on the reproduc-tion and development of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology, 49, 297–304.

Krčmar, S. (1999). Seasonal dynamics of horse flies in Eastern Croatia as a part of the Pannonian Plain (Diptera: Tabanidae). Periodicum Biologorum, 101(3), 221–228.

Krivosheina, N. P., & Krivosheina, M. G. (2019). Saproxylic Diptera (Insecta) of the Lazovsky State Nature Reserve (Russia). Nature Conservation Research, 4(3), 78–92.

Kuussaari, M., Heliölä, J., Luoto, M., & Pöyry, J. (2007). Determinants of local species richness of diurnal Lepidoptera in boreal agricultural landscapes. Agri-culture, Ecosystems and Environment, 122(3), 366–376.

Lysyk, T. J. (1993). Seasonal abundance of stable flies and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in dairies in Alberta, Canada. Journal Medical Entomology, 30, 888–895.

MacGowan, I., Vikhrev, N. E., Krivosheina, M. G., Ruchin, A. B., & Esin, M. N. (2021). New records of Diptera from the Republic of Mordovia, Russia. Far Eastern Entomologist, 423, 9–20.

Makaida, M. V., Pakhomov, O. Y., & Brygadyrenko, V. V. (2021). Effect of increased ambient temperature on seasonal generation number in Lucilia sericata (Diptera, Calliphoridae). Folia Oecologica, 48(2), 191–198.

Mali, K. H., & Zambare, S. P. (2019). Seasonal variations in life cycle of forensically important Calliphoridae fly Lucilia cuprina in Nandurbar (MS) India. Interna-tional Journal of Life science and Pharma Research, A13, 19–23.

Marshall, K. E., Gotthard, K., & Williams, C. M. (2020). Evolutionary impacts of winter climate change on insects. Current Opinion in Insect Science, 41, 54–62.

McGill, B. J., Enquist, B. J., Weiher, E., & Westoby, M. (2006). Rebuilding com-munity ecology from functional traits. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 21(4), 178–185.

Minin, A. A., Ananin, A. A., Buyvolov, Y. A., Larin, E. G., Lebedev, P. A., Polikar-pova, N. V., Prokosheva, I. V., Rudenko, M. I., Sapelnikova, I. I., Fedotova, V. G., Shuyskaya, E. A., Yakovleva, M. V., & Yantser, O. V. (2020). Recom-mendations to unify phenological observations in Russia. Nature Conservation Research, 5(4), 89–110.

Mullens, B. A., & Peterson, N. G. (2005). Relationship between rainfall and stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) abundance on California dairiesfly. Journal Medical Entomology, 42(4), 705–708.

Nekrasova, L. S., Vigorov, Y. L., & Vigorov, A. Y. (2016). Dynamics of the composition of the fauna of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) in parks of Yekaterinburg. Russian Journal of Ecology, 47(2), 186–193.

Osório, H. C., Rocha, J., Roquette, R., Guerreiro, N. M., Zé-Zé, L., Amaro, F., Silva, M., & Alves, M. J. (2020). Seasonal dynamics and spatial distribution of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in a temperate region in Europe, Southern Portugal. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(19), 7083.

Paur, J., & Gray, D. A. (2011). Seasonal dynamics and overwintering strategy of the tachinid fly (Diptera: Tachinidae), Ormia ochracea (Bigot) in Southern Califor-nia. Terrestrial Arthropod Reviews, 4, 145–156.

Pestov, S. V. (2010). Seasonal dynamics of hoverfly (Diptera, Syrphidae) activity in the taiga zone of the Komi Republic. Entomological Review, 90(6), 718–723.

Phillips, P. L., Welch, J. B., & Kramer, M. (2004). Seasonal and spatial distributions of adult screwworms (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in the Panama Canal Area, Re-public of Panama. Journal Medical Entomology, 41(1), 121–129.

Polevoi, A. V. (2021). Fungus gnats (Diptera: Bolitophilidae, Diadocidiidae, Kerop-latidae, Mycetophilidae) in the Kostomuksha State Nature Reserve, Russia. Na-ture Conservation Research, 6(Suppl. 1), 5–16.

Poppe, J. L., Valente, V. L. S., & Schmitz, H. J. (2013). Population dynamics of drosophilids in the Pampa biome in response to temperature. Neotropical En-tomology, 42, 269–277.

Prigent, S. R., Le Gall, P., Mbunda, S. W., & Veuille, M. (2013). Seasonal and altitudinal structure of drosophilid communities on Mt Oku (Cameroon volcanic line). Comptes Rendus Geoscience, 345, 316–326.

Rodríguez-Rodríguez, S. E., González-Hernández, H., Rodríguez-Leyva, E., Lo-melí-Flores, J. R., & Miranda-Salcedo, M. A. (2018). Species diversity and population dynamics of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Guerrero, Mexico. Florida Entomologist, 101, P. 113–118.

Roy, D. B., & Sparks, T. H. (2000). Phenology of British butterflies and climate change. Global Change Biology, 6, 407–416.

Ruchin, A. B. (2021). Seasonal dynamics and spatial distribution of lepidopterans in selected locations in Mordovia, Russia. Biodiversitas, 22(5), 2569–2575.

Ruchin, A. B., & Egorov, L. V. (2017). Overview of insect species included in the Red Data Book of Russian Federation in the Mordovia State Nature Reserve. Nature Conservation Research, 2(Suppl. 1), 2–9.

Ruchin, A. B., & Mikhailenko, A. P. (2018). Fauna of mantids and orthopterans (Insecta: Mantodea, Orthoptera) of the Mordovia State Nature Reserve, Russia. Biodiversitas, 19(4), 1194–1206.

Ruchin, A. B., Egorov, L. V., & Khapugin, A. A. (2021). Seasonal activity of Co-leoptera attracted by fermental crown traps in forest ecosystems of Central Russia. Ecological Questions, 32(1), 37–53.

Ruchin, A. B., Egorov, L. V., & Semishin, G. B. (2018). Fauna of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) in the interfluve of Rivers Moksha and Sura, Republic of Mordovia, Russia. Biodiversitas, 19(4), 1352–1365.

Ruchin, A. B., Egorov, L. V., Khapugin, A. A., Vikhrev, N. E., & Esin, M. N. (2020). The use of simple crown traps for the insects collection. Nature Conservation Research, 5(1), 87–108.

Schwartz, M. D. (2003). Phenology: An integrative environmental science. Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht.

Semelbauer, M., Mangová, B., Barta, M., & Kozánek, M. (2018). The factors influencing seasonal dynamics and spatial distribution of stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera, Muscidae) within stables. Insects, 9(4), 142.

Sevidzem, S. L., & Zinga-Koumba, C. R. (2019). Factors influencing seasonal and daily dynamics of the genus Stomoxys Geoffroy, 1762 (Diptera: Muscidae), in the Adamawa Plateau, Cameroon. International Journal of Zoology, 2019, 3636943.

Shapiro, L. (1995). Parasitism of Orchelimum katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) by Ormia lineifrons (Diptera: Tachinidae). Florida Entomologist, 78(4), 615–616.

Sinshaw, A., Abebe, G., Desquesnes, M., & Yoni, W. (2006). Biting flies and Trypanosoma vivax infection in three highland districts bordering lake Tana, Ethiopia. Veterinary Parasitology, 142, 35–46.

Souza-Filho, M. F., Raga, A., Azevedo-Filho, J. A., Strikis, P. C., Guimarães, J. A., & Zucchi, R. A. (2009). Diversity and seasonality of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephri-tidae and Lonchaeidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Figitidae) in orchards of guava, loquat and peach. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 69(1), 31–40.

Stojko, T. G., & Senkevich, V. A. (2018). Species composition and spatial structure of the zooplankton community in Lake Inorki (Mordovia State Nature Reserve, Russia). Nature Conservation Research, 3(3), 15–27.

Szyniszewska, A. M., & Tatem, A. J. (2014). Global assessment of seasonal potential distribution of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). PLoS One, 9(11), e111582.

Tanabe, S. I., Toda, M., & Vinokurova, A. (2001). Tree shape, forest structure and diversity of drosophilid community: Comparison between boreal and temperate birch forests. Ecological Research, 16, 369–385.

Taylor, D. B., Berkebile, D. R., & Scholl, P. J. (2007). Stable fly population dynam-ics in Eastern Nebraska in relation to climatic variables. Journal Medical Ento-mology, 44, 765–771.

Torres, F. R., & Madi-Ravazzi, L. (2006). Seasonal variation in natural populations of Drosophila spp. (Diptera) in two woodlands in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Iheringia, 96(4), 437–444.

Ulyshen, M. D., Soon, V., & Hanula, J. L. (2011). Vertical distribution and seasonality of predatory wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) in a temperate deciduous forest. Florida Entomologist, 94(4), 1068–1070.

Uribe, M. N., Wolff, M., & de Carvalho, C. J. B. (2010). Synanthropy and ecological aspects of Muscidae (Diptera) in a tropical dry forest ecosystem in Colombia. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 54(3), 462–470.

Wieher, E., Freund, D., Bunton, T., Stefanski, A., Lee, T., & Bentivenga, S. (2011). Advances, challenges and a developing synthesis of ecological community as-sembly theory. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 366(1576), 2403–2413.

Zengin, E. (2020). Occurrence of invasive species and seasonal dynamics of fruit flies (Diptera: Drosophilidae) species in Uşak province, Turkey. Revista Sociedad Entomológica Argentina, 79(1), 21–30.