The zone of temporary flooding of small rivers as an area of increased floristic diversity

Keywords: flora structure; vegetation; floristic potential; seed bank


During fluctuating water levels in the lower reaches of rivers, large areas of shallow water are exposed, forming a zone of temporary flooding (TFZ). The level regime of the water body determines the conditions for the growth of plants, the period available for vegetation of species and the path of seed migration. The seed bank is an integral part of a riparian biocenosis, experiencing the characteristics of environmental factors which influence its structure. Our study of the vegetation cover was carried out by the method of route survey of ecotopes in the estuaries of the Korozhechna and Ild rivers, tributaries of the Rybinsk Reservoir. Species composition of the flora is given in accordance with APG IV. The cenotic structure is characterized in terms of the Brown-Blanke school. To assess the species composition of the seed bank, a transect was placed along the width of the TFZ, on which cores were selected. Flora of the Korozhechny river is represented by 59 species from 24 families and 45 genera. Most numerous families: Poaceae (12%), Cyperaceae (10%), Polygonaceae (10%), Asteraceae, Ranunculaceae and Brassicaceae (by 7%). Flora of the Ild river is represented by 42 species from 18 families and 29 genera. Most numerous families: Cyperaceae (21%), Ranunculaceae (14%), Poaceae (12%), Plantaginaceae (7%). We found two rare species: Carex bohemica – on the Ild river and Ranunculus reptans – on both rivers. The difference in the species composition is explained by the greater riparian area of the TFZ on the Korozhechna river, characterized by a wide low floodplain. Phytocenosis form multicomponent complexes and are represented by associations Scirpetum lacustris, Phalaroidetum arundinaceae, Caricetum gracilis, Phragmitetum communis – on both rivers, Hippuridetum vulgaris и Batrachietum circinati – in terrestrial form on the Korozhechna river, and Eleocharitetum palustris and Oenantho-Rorippetum on the Ild river. In the seed bank composition of the TFZ of the transition zone of the Korozhechna river receiver 25 species were found, Ild river – 30 species. The ecological structure of the flora of both rivers and the seed bank is dominated by species of waterlogged and humid habitats. Their share (hygrophyte and hygromeso-and mesophyte) accounts for about 50%. With prolonged drying, they can normally develop in the TFZ. In the biomorphological structure, the main part of the flora and seed bank species are perennial grasses, characterized by great environmental plasticity, adapted to extreme conditions of habitat, having wide ecological amplitude with respect to the ground and which can withstand considerable fluctuations in the water level. As a result, our work has confirmed that the seed bank is a hidden component of plant communities and reflects the floristic potential of ecologically unstable territories.


Arbelaez, M. V., & Parrado-Rosselli, A. (2005). Seed dispersal modes of the Sand stone Plateau vegetation of the Middle Caquetá River Region, Colombian Amazonia. Biotropica, 37, 64–72.

Baldwin, A. H., & Derico, E. F. (1999). The seed bank of a restored tidal freshwa ter marsh in Washington, D.C. Urban Ecosystems, 3, 5–20.

Byng, J. W., Chase, M. W., Christenhusz, M. J. M., Fay, M. F., Judd, W. S., Mabberley, D. J., Sennikov, A. N., Soltis, D. E., Soltis, P. S., & Stevens, P. F. (2016). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: A PG I V. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 181, 1–20.

Camporeale, C., Perucca, E., Ridolfi, L., & Gurnell, A. M. (2013). Modeling the interactions between river morphodynamics and riparian vegetation. Reviews of Geophysics, 51, 379–414.

Chang, E. R., Jefferies, R. L., & Carleton, T. J. (2001). Relationship between ve getation and soil seed banks in an arctic coastal marsh. Journal of Ecology, 89, 367–384.

Cui, N., Wu, J., Zhong, F., Yang, L., Xiang, D., Cheng, S., & Zhou, Q. (2015). Seed banks and their implications of rivers with different trophic levels in Chaohu Lake Basin, China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22(3), 2247–2257.

Diggory, Z. E., & Parker, V. T. (2011). Seed supply and revegetation dynamics at res tored tidal marshes, Napa River, California. Restoration Ecology, 19, 121–130.

Elsey-Quirk, T., & Leck, M. A. (2015). Patterns of seed bank and vegetation diversity along a tidal freshwater river. American Journal of Botany, 102, 1996–2012.

Garin, E. V. (2016). Struktura flory sosudistyh rastenii Yaroslavskoi oblasti [The structure of flora of vascular plants of the Yaroslavl oblast]. Mezhduna rodnyy Zhurnal Prikladnyh i Fundamentalnyh Issledovanii, 8(2), 188–193 (in Russian).

Gurnell, A. (2014). Plants as river system engineers. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 39, 4–25.

Gurnell, A. M., Boitsidis, A. J., Thompson, K., & Clifford, N. J. (2006). Seed bank, seed dispersal and vegetation cover: Colonization along a newly-created river channel. Journal of Vegetation Science, 17, 665–674.

Gurnell, A., Thompson, K., Goodson, J., & Moggridge, H. (2008). Propagule de position along river margins: Linking hydrology and ecology. Journal of Ecology, 96, 553–565.

Katanskaya, V. M. (1981). Vysshaya vodnaya rastitelnost kontinentalnyh vodoe mov SSSR: Metody izucheniya [Higher aquatic vegetation of continental water bodies of the USSR: Study methods]. Nauka, Leningrad (in Russian).

Krylov, A. V., Tsvetkov, A. I., Malin, M. I., Romanenko, A. V., Poddubnii, S. A., & Otjukova, N. G. (2010). Communities of hydrobionts and the physical-che mical characteristics of the estuary area of inflow of a flat water basin. Inland Water Biology, 3(1), 59–69.

Krylova, E. G. (2014). Rastitel'nyj pokrov ust'evyh uchastkov malyh rek Verhnej Volgi [Plant cover of mouth sections of small rivers of Upper Volga]. Vestnik APK Verhnevolzh'ja, 27(3), 54–57 (in Russian).

Krylova, E. G. (2015a). Rastitel'nyj pokrov ust'evogo uchastka maloj reki Koro zhechny [The vegetative cover of the mouth of the small river Korozhevna ]. Gorizonty Gidrobotaniki, 71, 72–77 (in Russian).

Krylova, E. G. (2015b). Struktura rastitel'nogo pokrova [The structure of the vegetation cover]. Gidrojekologija ust'evyh oblastej pritokov ravninnogo vodohranilishha. Filigran', Jaroslavl', 109–123 (in Russian).

Leck, M. (2003). Seed-bank and vegetation development in a created tidal fresh-water wetland on the delaware river, Trenton, USA. Wetlands Journal, 23, 310–343.

Lisitsyna, L. I., Papchenkov, V. G., & Artyemenko, V. I. (2009). Flora vodoyomov Volzhskogo basseina: Opredelitel sosudistyh rastenij [Flora of water bodies of the Volga river basin: Identification guide to vascular plants]. KMK, Moscow (in Russian).

Maevskiy, P. F. (2014). Flora srednei polosy evropeyskoi chasti Rossii [Flora of the temperate zone of the European part of Russia]. KMK, Moscow (in Russian).

Mirkin, B. M., & Naumova, L. G. (2014). Istorija i konceptual'nye ustanovki klas sifikacii rastitel'nyh soobshhestv s ispol'zovaniem podhoda Braun-Blanke [History and conceptual settings for plant communities classification using the Brown-Blanc approach]. Lethaea Rossica, 9, 21–34 (in Russian).

Neff, K. P., Rusello, K., & Baldwin, A. H. (2009). Rapid seed bank development in restored tidal freshwater wetlands. Restoration Ecology, 17, 539–548.

Nilsson, C., Brown, R. L., Jansson, R., & Merritt, D. M. (2010). The role of hyd rochory in structuring riparian and wetland vegetation. Biological Reviews, 85, 837–858.

O'Donnell, J., Fryirs, K., & Leishman, M. R. (2015). Can the regeneration of ve getation from riparian seed banks support biogeomorphic succession and the geomorphic recovery of degraded river channels. River Research and Appli cations, 31, 834–846.

Papchenkov, V. G. (2001). Rastitelnyi pokrov vodoyomov Srednego Povolzhya [Vegetation cover of water bodies and water courses of the Middle Volga region]. CMP MUBiNT, Jaroslavl (in Russian).

Riis, N., Baattrup-Pedersen, A., Poulsen, B. J., & Kronvang, B. (2014). Seed ger mination from deposited sediments during high winter flow in riparian areas. Ecological Engineering, 66, 103–110.

Rohmistrov, V. L. (2004). Malye reki Jaroslavskogo Povolzh'ja [Small rivers of the Jaroslavl Volga Region]. Izdanie VVO RJA, Jaroslavl' (in Russian).

Tabacchi, E., Planty-Tabacchi, A.-M., Roques, L., & Nadal, E. (2005), Seed inputs in riparian zones: Implications for plant invasion. River Research and Applications, 21, 299–313.

Tererai, F., Gaertner, M., Jacobs, S. M., & Richardson, D. M. (2015). Resilience of invaded riparian landscapes: The potential role of soil-stored seed banks. Environmental Management, 55(1), 86–99.

Thompson, K., Bakker, J. P., & Hodgson, J. G. (2016). Ecological correlates of seed persistence in soil in the North-West European flora. Journal of Ecology, 98(1), 163–169.

Tihonov, A. V., & Lapirov, A. G. (2015). Bank semjan vodnyh i pribrezhno-vodnyh rastenij [Seed banks of water and coastal water plants]. Gidrojekologija ust'evyh oblastej pritokov ravninnogo vodohranilishha. Filigran', Jaroslavl'. pp. 124–138 (in Russian).

Tihonov, A. V., Papchenkov, V. G., & Lapirov, A. G. (2014). Bank semjan zony vremennogo zatoplenija Rybinskogo vodohranilishha [Seed banks of the temporary flood zone of the Rybinsk Reservoir]. Voda: Himija i Jekologija, 72(6), 63–67 (in Russian).

Vojtkó, A. E., Mesterházy, A., Süveges, K., Valkó, O., & Lukács, B. A. (2017). Changes in sediment seed bank composition of invaded macrophyte com munities in a thermal river. Freshwater Biology, 62, 1024–1035.

White, J. M., & Stromberg, J. C. (2011). Resilience, restoration, and riparian eco systems: Case study of a dryland, urban river. Restoration Ecology, 19, 101–111.

Yang, D., & Li, W. (2013). Soil seed bank and aboveground vegetation along a successional gradient on the shores of an oxbow. Aquatic Botany, 110, 67–77.

Zakonnova, A. V., & Litvinov, A. S. (2003). Geomorfologija, pochvennyj i rasti tel'nyj pokrov [Geomorphology, soil and vegetation cover]. Jekologicheskoe Sostojanie Malyh Rek Verhnego Povolzh'ja. Nauka, Moscow. pp. 5–9 (in Russian).


Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.