Contamination of urbanized territories with eggs of helmiths of animals
AbstractThe large number of species which cause parasitic infestations and the wide variety of routes and factors of their transmission give great relevance to systematic veterinary-sanitary research into environmental objects, necessarily paying attention to local natural-climatic conditions, social structure and the activities of the population. This problem is most often studied by medical researchers and ecologists, and the extent of studies on this topic from a veterinary-sanitary point of view is insufficient, which conditioned our choice of the current scientific study. Our goal was determining the level of contamination of urbanized territories with exogenous forms of helminths. The research was conducted during 2010–2018 in the territory of Kharkiv Oblast of Ukraine. During the study, we examined 41 samples of soil, extracted both in rural areas, and in urban conditions, and also 100 samples of feces of animals and birds. During the examination of soil from rural areas in Kharkiv Oblast and soil in Kharkiv and Balakleia, we found that it was contaminated with eggs of helminths of different morphotypes. It was determined that mean level of contamination of soil in rural area equaled 12.5%. At the same time, the level of contamination of soil of river banks was 15% at intensity of 52 ± 5 eggs/kg of soil and 10.0% in meadows at intensity of 54 ± 8 eggs/kg of soil. The level of contamination of the soil of park zones of urbanized territories with exogenous stages of helminths was 5–55% and that of residential zones of cities was 20.0–23.3%. In general, in the samples of soil, eggs of Strongilata, Ascaridata, Trichocephalus and Cestoda were isolated, and in the soil of rural areas also eggs of Trematoda class. It was proved that cattle and small ruminants discharge feces into the environment which have highest number of eggs of Strongylata spp. helminths (285 ± 3 eggs/g of feces). Excrement of infested birds contaminate the environment with exogenous forms of helminths of Trichocephalata (Capillaria spp.) suborder (101 ± 7 eggs/g of feces). In cities, dogs and cats, infested with helminths, discharge into the environment feces with eggs of parasites that belong to Toxocara spp. (75 ± 4 eggs/g) and Dipylidium caninum (6 ± 1 eggs/g). Droppings of infested birds contaminate the environment with exogenous forms of helminthes of Strongylata spp. (57 ± 2 eggs/g), Аscaridia spp. (19 ± 4 eggs/g) and Capillaria spp. (11 ± 2 eggs/g).
Abe, N., & Yasukawa, A. (1997). Prevalence of Toxocara spp. eggs in sandpits of parks in Osaka city, Japan with notes on the prevention of eggs contamination by fence construction. The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 59(1), 79–80.
Amoah, I. D., Reddy, P., Thor, R. S., & Stenström, A. (2018). Concentration of soil-transmitted helminth eggs in sludge from South Africa and Senegal: A probabilistic estimation of infection risks associated with agricultural application. Journal of Environmental Management, 26, 1020–1027.
Basáñez, M. G., McCarthy, J. S., French, M. D., Yang, G. J., Walker, M., Gambhir, M., Prichard, R. K., & Churcher, T. S. (2012). A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: Modelling for control and elimination. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 6(4), e1547.
Bessonov, A. S. (2002). Rezistentnost' k parazitotsidam i puti yeyo preodoleniya [Resistance to parasiticides and ways to overcome it]. Veterinary Medicine, 7, 24–28 (in Russian).
Beugnet, F., Bourdeau, P., Chalvet-Monfray, K., Cozma, V., Farkas, R., Guillot, J., Halos, L., Joachim, A., Losson, B., Miró, G., Otranto, D., Renaud, M., & Rinaldi, L. (2014). Parasites of domestic owned cats in Europe: Co-infestations and risk factors. Parasites and Vectors, 25(7), 291.
Boyko, A. A., & Brygadyrenko, V. V. (2017). Changes in the viability of the eggs of Ascaris suum under the influence of flavourings and source materials approved for use in and on foods. Biosystems Diversity, 25(2), 162–166.
Boyko, O. O., & Brygadyrenko, V. V. (2019). The impact of acids approved for use in foods on the vitality of Haemonchus contortus and Strongyloides papillosus (Nematoda) larvae. Helminthologia, 56(3), in print.
Campos, M. C., Beltrán, M., Fuentes, N., & Moreno, G. (2018). Helminth eggs as parasitic indicators of fecal contamination in agricultural irrigation water, biosolids, soils and pastures. Biomedica, 38(1), 42–53.
Capizzi-Banas, S., Deloge, M., Remy, M., & Schwartzbord, J. (2004). Liming as an advanced treatment for sludge sanitisation helminth eggs elimination – Ascaris eggs as model. Water Research, 38(14–15), 3250–3258.
Carden, S. M., Meusemann, R., Walker, J., Stawell, R. J., Mac Kinnon, J. R., Smith, D., Stawell, A. M., & Hall, A. J. (2003). Toxocara canis eggs presence in Melbourne parks and disease incidence in Victoria. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 31(2), 143–146.
Castillo, D., Paradez, C., Zanartu, C., Castillo, G., Mercado, R., Munoz, V., & Schenone, H. (2000). Environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs in public squares and parks from Santiago, Chile. Boletín Chileno de Parasitología, 55, 86–91.
Chammartin, F., Guimarães, L. H., Scholte, R. G., Bavia, M. E., Utzinger, J., & Vounatsou, P. (2014). Spatio-temporal distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Brazil. Parasites and Vectors, 7, 440.
Daxno, I. S., & Daxno, Y. I. (2010). Ekolohichna hel’mintolohiya [Ecological Helminthology]. Sumy (in Ukrainian).
de Silva, N. R., Brooker, S., Hotez, P. J., Montresor, A., Engels, D., & Savioli, L. (2003). Soil transmitted helminth infections: Updating the global picture. Trends in Parasitology, 19(12), 547–551.
de Ybanez, M. R. R., Garijo, M. M., & Alonso, F. D. (2001). Prevalence and viability of eggs of Toxocara spp. and Toxascaris leonina in public parks in Eastern Spain. Journal of Helminthology, 75, 169–173.
Deplazes, P., van Knapen, F., Schweiger, A., & Overgaauw, P. A. (2011). Role of pet dogs and cats in the transmission of helminthic zoonoses in Europe, with a focus on echinococcosis and toxocarosis. Veterinary Parasitology, 182(1), 41–53.
Dubná, S., Langrová, I., Jankovská, I., Vadlejch, J., Pekár, S., Nápravník, J., & Fechtner, J. (2007). Contamination with Toxocara eggs in urban (Prague) and rural areas in the Czech Republic. Veterinary Parasitology, 144(1–2), 81–86.
Gugosyan, Y. A., Boyko, O. O., & Brygadyrenko, V. V. (2019). Morphological variation of four species of Strongyloides (Nematoda, Rhabditida) parasitising various mammal species. Biosystems Diversity, 27(1), 85–98.
Karagiannis-Voules, D. A., Biedermann, P., Ekpo, U. F., Garba, A., Langer, E., Mathieu, E., Midzi, N., Mwinzi, P., Polderman, A. M., Raso, G., Sacko, M., Talla, I., Tchuenté, L. A., Touré, S., Winkler, M. S., Utzinger, J., & Vounatsou, P. (2014). Spatial and temporal distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infection in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review and geostatistical meta-analysis. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 15, 74–84.
Masalkova, Y. Y. (2015). Kontaminatsiya pochvy severnogo regiona Belarusi yaytsami gel’mintov sobak [Contamination of the soil of the northern region of Belarus with helminth eggs of dogs]. Ecological Herald, 32, 89–94 (in Russian).
McCarthy, J. S., Lustigman, S., Yang, G. J., Barakat, R. M., García, H. H., Sripa, B., Willingham, A. L., Prichard, R. K., & Basáñez, M. G. (2012). A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: Diagnostics for control and elimination programmes. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 6(4), e1601.
Paliy, A. P., Mashkey, A. M., Sumakova, N. V., & Paliy, A. P. (2018). Distribution of poultry ectoparasites in industrial farms, farms, and private plots with different rearing technologies. Biosystems Diversity, 26(2), 153–159.
Paliy, A. P., Sumakova, N. V., Mashkey, A. M., Petrov, R. V., Paliy, A. P., & Ishchenko, K. V. (2018). Contamination of animal-keeping premises with eggs of parasitic worms. Biosystems Diversity, 26(4), 327–333.
Piwak, V. P., Bulik, R. E., & Zaxarchuk, O. I. (2007). Laboratorna diahnostyka parazytarnykh invaziy [Laboratory diagnosis of parasitic infestations]. Medical University, Chernivtsi (in Ukrainian).
Rinaldi, L., Biggeri, A., Carbone, S., Musells, V., Catelan, D., Veneziano, V., & Cringoil, G. (2006). Canine faecal contamination and parasitic risk in the city of Naples (Southern Italy). BMC Veterinary Research, 2, 1–6.
Romanenko, N. A. (2000). Otsenka svyazi zabolevayemosti naseleniya parazitarnymi boleznyami s obsemenennost’yu okruzhayushchey sredy [Estimation of the connection between the incidence of the population of parasitic diseases and the contamination of the environment]. Medical Parasitology, 2, 12–14. (in Russian).
Seo, M., Chai, J. Y., Kim, M. J., Shim, S. Y., Ki, H. C., & Shin, D. H. (2016). Detection trend of helminth eggs in the strata soil samples from ancient historic places of Korea. The Korean Journal of Parasitology, 54(5), 555–563.
Soares Magalhães, R. J., Salamat, M. S., Leonardo, L., Gray, D. J., Carabin, H., Halton, K., McManus, D. P., Williams, G. M., Rivera, P., Saniel, O., Hernandez, L., Yakob, L., McGarvey, S. T., & Clements, A. C. (2015). Mapping the risk of soil-transmitted helminthic infections in the Philippines. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 9(9), e0003915.
Steinbaum, L., Kwong, L. H., Ercumen, A., Negash, M. S., Lovely, A. J., Njenga, S. M., Boehm, A. B., Pickering, A. J., & Nelson, K. L. (2017). Detecting and enumerating soil-transmitted helminth eggs in soil: New method development and results from field testing in Kenya and Bangladesh. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 11(4), e0005522.
Steinbaum, L., Njenga, S. M., Kihara, J., Boehm, A. B., Davis, J., Null, C., & Pickering, A. J. (2016). Soil-transmitted helminth eggs are present in soil at multiple locations within households in rural Kenya. PLoS One, 11(6), e0157780.
Thomas, D., & Jeyathilakan, N. (2014). Detection of Toxocara eggs in contaminated soil from various public places of Chennai city and detailed correlation with literature. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 38(2), 174–180.