Contamination of urbanized territories with eggs of helmiths of animals


Keywords: soil; feces; animals; rural area; urban territory.

Abstract

The large number of species which cause parasitic infestations and the wide variety of routes and factors of their transmission give great relevance to systematic veterinary-sanitary research into environmental objects, necessarily paying attention to local natural-climatic conditions, social structure and the activities of the population. This problem is most often studied by medical researchers and ecologists, and the extent of studies on this topic from a veterinary-sanitary point of view is insufficient, which conditioned our choice of the current scientific study. Our goal was determining the level of contamination of urbanized territories with exogenous forms of helminths. The research was conducted during 2010–2018 in the territory of Kharkiv Oblast of Ukraine. During the study, we examined 41 samples of soil, extracted both in rural areas, and in urban conditions, and also 100 samples of feces of animals and birds. During the examination of soil from rural areas in Kharkiv Oblast and soil in Kharkiv and Balakleia, we found that it was contaminated with eggs of helminths of different morphotypes. It was determined that mean level of contamination of soil in rural area equaled 12.5%. At the same time, the level of contamination of soil of river banks was 15% at intensity of 52 ± 5 eggs/kg of soil and 10.0% in meadows at intensity of 54 ± 8 eggs/kg of soil. The level of contamination of the soil of park zones of urbanized territories with exogenous stages of helminths was 5–55% and that of residential zones of cities was 20.0–23.3%. In general, in the samples of soil, eggs of Strongilata, Ascaridata, Trichocephalus and Cestoda were isolated, and in the soil of rural areas also eggs of Trematoda class. It was proved that cattle and small ruminants discharge feces into the environment which have highest number of eggs of Strongylata spp. helminths (285 ± 3 eggs/g of feces). Excrement of infested birds contaminate the environment with exogenous forms of helminths of Trichocephalata (Capillaria spp.) suborder (101 ± 7 eggs/g of feces). In cities, dogs and cats, infested with helminths, discharge into the environment feces with eggs of parasites that belong to Toxocara spp. (75 ± 4 eggs/g) and Dipylidium caninum (6 ± 1 eggs/g). Droppings of infested birds contaminate the environment with exogenous forms of helminthes of Strongylata spp. (57 ± 2 eggs/g), Аscaridia spp. (19 ± 4 eggs/g) and Capillaria spp. (11 ± 2 eggs/g).

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Published
2019-05-15
Section
Articles