New findings of pest sciarid species (Diptera, Sciaridae) in Ukraine, with the first record of Bradysia difformis


  • A. I. Babytskiy I. I. Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2758-0319
  • M. S. Moroz National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine
  • S. O. Kalashnyk O. V. Fomin Botanical Garden
  • O. O. Bezsmertna Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8764-8878
  • I. D. Dudiak Mykolaiv National Agrarian University
  • O. V. Voitsekhivska Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6983-5781
Keywords: Mycetophiloidea; black fungus gnats; species richness; chorology; trophic links.

Abstract

Sciarids (Diptera, Sciaridae) or black fungus gnats are small, mainly dark coloured insects whose larvae usually develop in rotting plant remains permeated by fungal hyphae. Typical habitats for sciarids are shaded forests and wet meadows, but some species can migrate from natural biotopes to anthropogenic ecosystems and live as synanthropes. Synanthropic sciarid species in the case of their larvae mass development, may cause significant damage to agricultural plants and mushrooms and are considered as pests. The information on pest activities of sciarids in the literature is provided for 34 species, but only 7 species can be considered as dangerous pests. In the framework of taxonomic and ecological research on Sciaridae in Ukraine, some chorological and faunistic peculiarities of pest sciarids have been studied. We collected material during the expeditions and excursions in different biotopes of Ukraine from 2012 to 2018 using the Malaise trap, by the method of non-count sweeping with entomological net and with exhauster directly from substrate. The collected imagoes were placed into 5 mL vials with 70% ethanol. In the lab, the fixed material was dehydrated in absolute ethanol and mounted on slides in Euparal. All of the studied material is kept in Andriy Babytskiy’s Private Collection, Kyiv (PABK) and mostly availible to the public on the UkrBIN. In Ukraine 4 species of harmful sciarid pests from 3 genera are recorded, namely Bradysia brunnipes (in Crimea), B. difformis (in Kyiv and Volyn Regions), Lycoriella ingenua (in Kyiv and Volyn Regions) and Pnyxia scabiei (Western regions excluding the Carpathians). B. brunnipes, also known as “cucumber gnat”, is one of the widespread cucumber pests in greenhouses, damaging roots and above-ground shoots of cucumbers. In Ukraine, mass development of this species and significant loses of the harvest caused by it have not been reported. B. difformis is a widespread pest sciarid, but in Ukraine it has been recorded for the first time. The mass development of this species was recorded in hothouses with cacti and other succulent plants at the O. V. Fomin Botanical Garden, where the larvae of B. difformis cause significant damage to these plants, especially to their sprouts. L. ingenua is the most common sciarid pest which damages mushrooms in hothouses. In Ukraine it was massively recorded  in cellars and on vegetables in storages. P. scabiei was recorded in Western Ukraine, except the Carpathians, as a potato pest species that damages sprouts in the fields and tubers in storages. Considering the absence of records of P. scabiei in natural biotopes of Ukraine, it is likely that this species was introduced to our country from America together with potatoes and should be recognized as an alien species to the natural entomofauna of Ukraine.

References

Agullera, A., & Fernando, P. (1996). Bradysia coprophila (Lintner) (Diptera: Sciaridae) in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). Agricultura Tecnica (Chile), 56(2), 135–138.


Akhatov, A. K., & Izhevskii, S. S. (2004). Vrediteli teplichnyih i oranzhereynyih rasteniy (morfologiya, obraz zhizni, vredonosnost, borba) [Pests of hothouse and greenhouse plants (morphology, lifeway, harmfulness, control)]. KMK, Moscow (in Russian).


Al-Amidi, A. H. K., Dunne, R., & Downes, M. J. (1991). Parasitus bituberosus (Acari: Parasitidae): An agent for control of Lycoriella solani (Diptera: Sciaridae) in mushroom crops. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 11(2–3), 159–166.


Alberts, S. A., Kennedy, M. K., & Cardé, R. T. (1981). Pheromone-mediated anemotactic flight and mating behavior of the sciarid fly Bradysia impatiens. Environmental Entomology, 10(1), 10–15.


Ali, O., Dunne, R., & Brennan, P. (1999). Effectiveness of the predatory mite Hypoaspis miles (Acari: Mesostigmata: Hypoaspidae) in conjunction with pesticides for control of the mushroom fly Lycoriella solani (Diptera: Sciaridae). Experimental and Applied Acarology, 23(1), 65–77.


Berg, M. P. (2000). Mass-length and mass-volume relationships of larvae of Bradysia paupera (Diptera: Sciaridae) in laboratory cultures. European Journal of Soil Biology, 36(3–4), 127–133.


Brewer, K. K., & Keil, C. B. (1989). A mixed function oxidase factor contributing to permethrin and dichlorvos resistance in Lycoriella mali (Fitch) (Diptera: Sciaridae). Pesticide Science, 26(1), 29–39.


Broadley, A., Kauschke, E., & Mohrig, W. (2018). Black fungus gnats (Diptera: Sciaridae) found in association with cultivated plants and mushrooms in Australia, with notes on cosmopolitan pest species and biosecurity interceptions. Zootaxa, 4415(2), 201–242.


Cantelo, W. W., Henderson, D., & Argauer, R. J. (1982). Variation in sensitivity of mushroom strains to diazinon compost treatment. Journal of Economic Entomology, 75(1), 123–125.


Cloyd, R. (2015). Ecology of fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.) in greenhouse production systems associated with disease-interactions and alternative management strategies. Insects, 6(2), 325–332.


Coquillett, D. W. (1895). A new wheat pest (Sciara tritici n. sp.). Insect Life, 7(5), 406–408.


Demir, H., Erler, F., Catal, M., Polat, E., & Tuna, G. (2011). Control of mushroom sciarid fly Lycoriella ingenua populations with insect growth regulators applied by soil drench. Journal of Economic Entomology, 104(3), 839–844.


Felt, E. P. (1898). Additional notes on Sciara. The fungus gnats (Ord. Diptera: Fam. Mycetophilidae.). Report of the State Entomologist. Annual Report of the New York State Museum, 1896, 50(1), 223–228.


Freeman, P. (1983). Sciarid flies. Diptera, Sciaridae. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects, 9(6), 1–68.


Frouz, J., & Nováková, A. (2001). A new method for rearing the sciarid fly, Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae), in the laboratory: Possible implications for the study of fly – fungal interactions. Pedobiologia, 45(4), 329–340.


Gao, H. H., Zhai, Y. F., Cao, X., Zhou, X. H., Wang, Z. Y., Wang, F., Chen, H., Yu, Y. (2016). Feeding and related morphology of salivary glands of Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae). Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, 19(2), 319–325.


Gerbachevskaja, A. A. (1963). Komariki sem. Lycoriidae (Diptera), vredyaschie ovoschnyim rasteniyam i shampinonam v teplitsah pod Leningradom [Leaf midges (Diptera, Lycoriidae) injurious to vegetables and common mushrooms in hothouses of the Leningrad region]. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie, 3, 496–511 (in Russian).


Gerbachevskaja, A. A. (1969). 25. Semejstwo Sciaridae [25. Sciaridae family]. Opredelitel nasekomych ewropejskoj tschasti SSSR. Vol. 5(1), 320–356.


Gerbachevskaja-Pavluchenko, A. A. (1986). Family Sciaridae. Catalogue of Palaearctic Diptera. Sciaridae – Anisopodidae. Vol. 4, 11–72.


Gui, H. L. (1933a). The potato scab-gnat, Phyxia scabiei Hop. The American Potato Journal, 10(2), 22–27.


Gui, H. L. (1933b). The potato scab-gnat, Pnyxia scabiei (Hopkins). Bulletin of the Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, 524, 1–21.


Han, Q. X., Cheng, D. M., Luo, J., Zhou, C. Z., Lin, Q. S., & Xiang, M. M. (2015). First report of Bradysia difformis (Diptera: Sciaridae) Damage to Phalaenopsis orchid in China. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, 18(1), 77–81.


Harris, M. A., Gardner, W. A., & Oetting, R. D. (1996). A review of the scientific literature on fungus gnats (Diptera: Sciaridae) in the genus Bradysia. Journal of Entomological Science, 31(3), 252–276.


Hopkins, A. D. (1895). Notes on the habits of certain Mycetophilids, with descriptions of Epidapus scabiei, sp. nov. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 3(3), 149–159.


Hussey, N. W., & Gurney, B. (1968). Biology and control of the sciarid Lycoriella auripila Winn. (Diptera: Lycoriidae) in mushroom culture. Annals of Applied Biology, 62, 395–403.


Ivanytsia, V. O., Nepomniashcha, N. M., Uzhevska, S. P., Bagaeva, O. S., Kryvytska, T. M., & Bobreshova, N. S. (2010). Metody otsinky entomotsydnoi aktyvnosti mikroorhanizmiv shchodo lychynok hrybnoho komaryka (Sciaridae) [Methods of estimating the entomocidal activity of microorganisms in relation to the activity of larvae of fungus gnat (Sciaridae)]. Microbiology and Biotechnology, 4, 96–108 (in Ukrainian).


Jess, S., & Schweizer, H. (2009). Biological control of Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae) in commercial mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) cultivation: A comparison between Hypoaspis miles and Steinernema feltiae. Pest Management Science, 65(11), 1195–1200.


Johannsen, O. A. (1912). The fungus gnats of North America. Part 4. Bulletin of the Maine Agricultural Experimental Station, 200, 57–146.


Komarov, S. S. (2011). Stsiaridyi (Diptera, Sciaridae) Gornogo Altaya [Sciarids (Diptera, Sciaridae) of Horniy Altai]. ISEA SB RAS, Novosibirsk (in Russian).


Komarova, L. A. (2003). Stsiaridyi (Diptera, Sciaridae) predgoriy i gor Severnogo Altaya i Salaira [Sciarids (Diptera, Sciaridae) of foothills and mountains of North Altai and Salair]. TSU, Tomsk (in Russian).


Lewandowski, M., Sznyk, A., & Bednarek, A. (2004). Biology and morphometry of Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera : Sciaridae). Biological Letters, 41(1), 41–50.


Loudon, B. J. (1978). A new species of Lycoriella Frey (Diptera: Sciaridae) infesting cultivated mushrooms in New South Wales. Australian Journal of Entomology, 17(2), 163–166.


Menzel, F., & Mohrig, W. (2000). Revision der paläarktischen Trauermücken (Diptera: Sciaridae). Studia Dipterologica Supplement, 6, 1–761.


Menzel, F., Smith, J. E., & Chandler, P. J. (2006). The sciarid fauna of the British Isles (Diptera: Sciaridae), including descriptions of six new species. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 146(1), 1–147.


Menzel, F., Smith, J. E., & Colauto, N. B. (2003). Bradysia difformis Frey and Bradysia ocellaris (Comstock): Two additional neotropical species of black fungus gnats (Diptera: Sciaridae) of economic importance: A redescription and review. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 96(4), 448–457.


Nepomyashcha, N. M., & Uzhevska, S. P. (2010). Hrybnyi komaryk Bradysia pilistriata (Sciaridae) – osnovnyi shkidnyk hlyvy na Odeshchyni [Fungus midges Bradysia pilistriata (Sciaridae) – the most widespread pests of Pleurotus ostreatus in Odessa Region]. Karantyn i Zakhyst Roslyn, 11(173), 18–20 (in Ukrainian).


Osmola, N. I. (1970). Morfologija imaginal̓noj i preimaginal̓nych fas kartofel̓nogo komarika Pnyxia scabiei Hopk. (Diptera, Sciaridae) [Morphology of imaginal and preimaginal phases of Pnyxia scabiei Hopk. (Diptera, Sciaridae)]. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie, 49(4), 770–775 (in Russian).


Pryshchepa, L. I., & Kindratenko, T. P. (2009). Perspektivy biologicheskogo kontrolia chislennosti dvukrylykh fitofagov v teplitsakh [Perspectives of biological control of the number of dipteran phytophages in greenhouses]. In: VI Congress of plant protection with symposium about biological control of invasive species. Zlatibor, 115–121 (in Russian).


Reshetova, E. D., & Fedorenko, V. P. (2013). Zahist gribiv u zakritomu grunti [Protection of fungi in the closed soil]. Zakhyst i Karantyn Roslyn, 59, 222–225.


Rodríguez-Rodríguez, M. D., Menzel, F., Aguilera, A. M., & Smith, J. (2005). La mosquilla negra (Diptera: Sciaridae): Un problema emergente en los cultivos bajo plástico en Almería. Phytoma España, 172, 116–123.


Sataeva, A. R. (2006). Stsiaridyi (Diptera, Sciaridae) yugo-vostochnoy chasti Kazahstana [Sciarids (Diptera, Sciaridae) of Southeast part of Kazakhstan]. Spis, Semipalatinsk (in Russian).


Shamshad, A. (2010). The development of integrated pest management for the control of mushroom sciarid flies, Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour) and Bradysia ocellaris (Comstock), in cultivated mushrooms. Pest Management Science, 66(10), 1063–1074.


Shamshad, A., Clift, A. D., & Mansfield, S. (2008). Toxicity of six commercially formulated insecticides and biopesticides to third instar larvae of mushroom sciarid, Lycoriella ingenua Dufour (Diptera: Sciaridae), in New South Wales, Australia. Australian Journal of Entomology, 47(3), 256–260.


Shamshad, A., Clift, A. D., & Mansfield, S. (2009). The effect of tibia morphology on vector competency of mushroom sciarid flies. Journal of Applied Entomology, 133(6), 484–490.


Shin, J. S., Cho, D., Cho, H. S., Kim, H., & Lee, H. S. (2008). A report on the damage caused by Phytosciara procera, ginseng stem fungus gnat. Journal of Ginseng Research, 32(4), 275–278.


Shin, J. S., Jung, S., Heller, K., Menzel, F., Hong, T. K., Shin, J. S., Lee, S. H., Lee, H., Lee, S. (2015). DNA barcoding of Bradysia (Diptera: Sciaridae) for detection of the immature stages on agricultural crops. Journal of Applied Entomology, 139(8), 638–645.


Speyer, E. R. (1922). Mycetophilid flies as pests of the cucumber plant in glass-houses. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 13(3), 255.


Steffan, W. A. (1972). Lycoriella solani (Winnertz) from the Crozet Islands (Diptera: Sciaridae). Pacific Insects, 14(2), 429–431.


Steffan, W. A. (1974). Laboratory studies and ecological notes on Hawaiian Sciaridae (Diptera). Pacific Insects, 16(1), 41–50.


Tuomikoski, R. (1960). Zur Kenntnis der Sciariden (Dipt.) Finnlands. Annales Zoologici Societatis Zoologicae Botanicae Fennicae „Vanamo“, 21(4), 1–164.


White, P. F., & Smith, J. E. (2000). Bradysia lutaria (Winn.) (Dipt., Sciaridae) – A recent addition to the British fauna and a pest of the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). The Entomologist̓s Monthly Magazine, 136, 165–167.


White, P. F., Smith, J. E., & Menzel, F. (2000). Distribution of Sciaridae (Dipt.) species infesting commercial mushroom farms in Britain. The Entomologist̓s Monthly Magazine, 136, 207–209.


Wilkinson, J. D., & Daugherty, D. M. (1970a). Comparative development of Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) under constant and variable temperatures. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 63(4), 1079–1083.


Wilkinson, J. D., & Daugherty, D. M. (1970b). The biology and immature stages of Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 63(3), 656–660.


Wright, E. M., & Chambers, R. J. (1994). The biology of the predatory mite Hypoaspis miles (Acari : Laelapidae), a potential biological control agent of Bradysia paupera (Dipt.: Sciaridae). Entomophaga, 39(2), 225–235.


Ye, L., Leng, R., Huang, J., Qu, C., & Wu, H. (2017). Review of three black fungus gnat species (Diptera: Sciaridae) from greenhouses in China: Three greenhouse sciarids from China. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, 20(1), 179–184.


Zhang, P., Liu, F., Mu, W., Wang, Q., & Li, H. (2014). Comparison of Bradysia odoriphaga Yang and Zhang reared on artificial diet and different host plants based on an age-stage, two-sex life table. Phytoparasitica, 43(1), 107–120.

Published
2019-03-16
Section
Articles