Heavy metals in the small rivers of Ternopil region under different types of anthropogenic pressure
AbstractThe dynamic of content and peculiarities of migration of heavy metals in small rivers of Ternopil region were analyzed (Zn, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Pb). It was determined that cobalt does not exceed maximum permissible levels, whereas the content of other metals exceed these levels at rates from 2 to 42 times the emission limit set by the fishing industry. The waters of Ternopil region are the richest in the compounds of iron and manganese by virtue of the lithological content of the researched water basins. The excess in Mn and Fe concentration in river water is caused by occurrence of these elements in abiotic components of river valleys, particularly in areas with iron and manganese, alluvial deposits, clay soils with ferrous metal compounds and leaching of elements from rock, soil and forest litter. As our research showed, increased metal content in water basins is caused by natural factors (river running through areas with ore and where leaching of ore occurs it, reaction of interstitial water, metals appearing in ground water run-off), anthropogenic (waste waters of industrial plants, agricultural outwash, fuel combustion) and hydrochemical factors of the hydroecosystem itself (consumption and releasing of metals by hydrobionts, aquatic habitat pH, metals coming in from ground sediments, metals released from complexes with organic compounds, methylation of non-organic metal compounds). A comparative analysis of the pollution levels of Ternopil region water basins by heavy metals was completed. It was determined that the river most heavily contaminated by the content of nutrients and non-biogenic HM is the Zolota Lypa and the cleanest is the River Strypa, which allows us to recommend the use of water composition as a reference indicator in assessing the ecological state of the region’s surface waters.
Abubakar, A., Saleh, Y., Shehu, K., 2015. Heavy metals pollution on surface water sources in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria. Science World Journal 10(2), 1–5.
Bichi, M., Bello, U., 2013. Heavy metal pollution in surface and ground waters used for irrigation along River Tatsawarki in the Kano, Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Engineering 3(8), 1–9.
Brygadyrenko, V.V., Ivanyshyn, V.М., 2014. Vlijanie soli zheleza na massu tela Megaphyllum kievense (Diplopoda, Julidae) i granulometricheskij sostav podstilki v laboratornom jeksperimente [Impact of ferric salt on body weight of Megaphyllum kievense (Diplopoda, Julidae) and litter granulometric composition in the laboratory experiment]. Vìsn. Dnìpropetr. Unìv. Ser. Bìol. Ekol. 22(1), 83–87 (in Russian).
Brygadyrenko, V., Ivanyshyn, V., 2015. Changes in the body mass of Megaphyllum kievense (Diplopoda, Julidae) and the granulometric composition of leaf litter subject to different concentrations of copper. J. Forest Sci. 61(9), 369–376.
Duruibe, J., Ogwuegbu, M., Egwurugwu, J., 2007. Heavy metal pollution and human biotoxic effects. International Journal of Physical Sciences 2(5), 112–118.
Fatieiev, A., Pashchenko, Y., 2003. Fonovyi vmist mikroelementiv u gruntakh Ukrainy [Background content of microelements in ukrainian soils]. National Science Centre, Kharkiv (in Ukrainian).
Hu, H., Jin, Q., Kavan, P., 2014. A study of heavy metal pollution in China: Current status, pollution-control policies and countermeasures. Sustainability 6, 5820–5838.
Humeniuk, H., 2003. Rozpodil vazhkyh metaliv u hidroekosystemi prisnoi vodoimy (na prykladi Ternopilskoho stavu) [Heavy metals distribution in hydroecosystem of fresh water (on the example of Ternopil lake)]. Chernivtsi (in Ukrainian).
Kar, D., Sur, P., Mandal, S., Saha, T., Kole, R., 2008. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in surface water. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech. 5(1), 119–124.
Kholopov, Y., 2003. Tiazholye metaly kak factor ekolohicheskoi opasnosti [Heavy metals as factor of ecological danger]. SamGAPS, Samara (in Russian).
Kulbachko, Y., Loza, I., Pakhomov, O., Didur, O., 2011. The zoological remediation of technogen faulted soil in the industrial region of the Ukraine Steppe zone. In: Behnassi, M. et al. (eds.), Sustainable agricultural development. Springer Science + Business Media, Dordrecht, Heidelberg, London, New York, 115–123.
Leite, V., Lure, Y., 1975. Opredelenie orhanicheskikh zahriaznenii pitevykh, prirodnykh i stochnykh vod [Definition of organic pollution of fresh, natural and flowing waters]. Khimiia, Moscow (in Russian).
Linnik, P., 1986. Formy mihratsii metalov v presnykh poverkhnostnykh vodakh [Forms of metal migration in fresh surface waters]. Hidrometeoizdat, Leningrad (in Russian).
Linnik, P., Zhezherya, V., 2011. Peculiarities of metals migration in the "bottom sediments − water" system with decreasing pH and increasing the concentration of fulvic acids. Hydrobiological Journal 47(5), 86–101.
Linnyik, P., Zaporozhets, O., 2005. Spivisnuiuchi formy vanadiiu, ferumu, kobaltu ta kuprumu u void vodoshovyshch Dnipra ta deiakykh richok Ukrainy [Co-existing forms of vanadium, ferrum, cobalt and copper in Dnipro water basins and some rivers of Ukraine]. Scientific Notes of Ternopil’ Volodymyr Hnatiuk National Pedagogical University. Series biology 3, 246–248 (in Ukrainian).
Lure, Y., 1973. Unifitsyrovanye metody analiza vod [Unify methods of water analysis]. Khimiia, Moscow (in Russian).
Malassa, H., Qutob, M., Khatib, M., Rimawi, F., 2013. Determination of different trace heavy metals in ground water of South West Bank / Palestine by ICP / MS. Journal of Environmental Protection 4, 818–827.
Malik, D., Singh, S., Thakur, J., Singh, R., Kaur, A., Nijhawan, S., 2014. Heavy metal pollution of the Yamuna River: An introspection. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 3(10), 856–863.
Manoj, K., Padhy, P., Chaundhury, S., 2012. Study of heavy metal contamination of the river water through index analysis approach and environmetrics. Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences 10, 7–15.
Mur, D., Ramamurti, V., 1987. Tiazholye metaly v prirodnykh vodakh [Heavy metals in natural waters]. Mir, Moscow (in Russian).
Myslyva, T., Kot, I., 2011. Vazhki metaly u vodakh malykh richok Zhytomyrskoho Polisia [Heavy metals is small rivers of Zhutomyr region]. Bulletin of Zhytomyr National Agroecological University 2, 58–68 (in Ukrainian).
Nasrabadi, T., 2015. An index approach to metallic pollution in riverwaters. Int. J. Environ. Res. 9(1), 385–394.
Naveedullah, Hashmi, M., Yu C., Shen, H., Duan, D., Shen, C., Lou, L., Chen, Y., 2014. Concentrations and human health risk assessment of selected heavy metals in surface water of the siling reservoir watershed in zhejiang province, China. Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 23(3), 801-811.
Nazir, R., Khan, M., Masab, M., Renman, H., Rauf, N., Shahab, S., Ameer, N., Sajed, M., Ullah, M., Rafeeq, M., Shaheen, Z., 2015. Accumulation of heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, Fe) in the soil, water and plants and analysis of physico-chemical parameters of soil and water collected from Tanda Dam kohat. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 7(3), 89–97.
Niu, Y., Yu, W., Niu, Y., Xu, Y., Spatial, X., 2015. Evaluation of heavy metals concentrations in the surface sediment of Taihu lake. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 12, 15028–15039.
Novikov, Y., Lastochkina, K., Boldina, Z., 1990. Metody isledovania kachestva vody vodoemov [Research methods of water quality of water basins]. Meditsyna, Moscow (in Russian).
Nzeve, J., Njuguna, S., Kitur, E., 2015. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in surface water of Masinga Reservoir, Kenya. Journal of Natural Sciences Research 5(2), 101–108.
Opp, C., Hahn, J., Zitzer, N., Laufenberg, G., 2015. Heavy metal concentrations in pores and surface waters during the emptying of a small reservoir. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection 3, 66–72.
Orubite, K., Ogunka-Nnoka, C., Okpokwu, K., 2015. Heavy metal concentrations in soil, fluted pumpkin leaf and surface water in umuebulu community in rivers state, Nigeria. European Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 2(1), 46–52.
Reza, R., Singh, G., 2010. Assessment of heavy metal contamination and its indexing approach for river water. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech. 7(4), 785–792.
Romanenko, V., 2001. Osnovy hidroekolohii [Basics of hydroecology]. Oberehu, Kyiv (in Ukrainian).
Snizhko, S., 2001. Otsinka ta prohnozuvania yakosti prirodnykh vod [Assessment and analyzing of quality of natural waters]. Nika-Tsentr, Kyiv (in Ukrainian).
Song, J., Yang, X., Zhang, J., Long, Y., Zhang, Y., Zhang, T., 2015. Assessing the variability of heavy metal concentrations in liquid-solid two-phase and related environmental risks in the Weihe river of shaanxi province, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 12, 8243–8262.
Stanko, O., 2012. Vazhki metaly u vodi: Zabrudnenia richky Dnister za ostanni 10 rokiv (terytoria Lvivskoi oblasti) [Heavy metals in water: Pollution of Dnister in last ten years (territory of Lviv region)]. Suchasni Problemy Toksykolohii 3–4, 58–63 (in Ukrainian).
Svynko, Y., 2007. Narys pro pryrodu Ternopilskoi oblasti: Heolohichne mynule, suchasnyi stan [Essay on nature of Ternopil region: geological past, current condition]. Navchalna Knyha-Bohdan, Ternopil (in Ukrainian).
Syvyi, M., 2004. Mineralni resursy Podillia: Кonstruktyvno-heohrafichnyi analiz i syntez [Mineral resources of Podillia: Constructive-geographical analysis and synthesis]. Pidruchnyky i Posibnyky, Ternopil (in Ukrainian).
Syvyi, M.Y., Tsaryk, L.P., 2011. Pryrodni umovy ta resursy Ternopilshchyny [Natural conditions and resourses of Ternopil region]. Ternohraf, Ternopil (in Ukrainian).
Tsaryk, L., 1993. Problemy ekolohii ridnoho kraiu [Ecological problems of native land]. TDPI, Ternopil (in Ukrainian).
Tsvetkova, N.M., Pakhomov, O.Y., Serdyuk, S.M., Yakyba, M.S., 2016. Biologichne riznomanittja Ukrajiny. Dnipropetrovs'ka oblast'. Grunty. Metaly u gruntah [Bіological diversity of Ukraine. The Dnipropetrovsk region. Soils. Metalls in the soils]. Lira, Dnipropetrovsk (in Ukrainian).
Wogu, M., Okaka, C., 2011. Pollution studies on Nigerian rivers: heavy metals in surface water of warri river, Delta State. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences 3, 7–12.
Yankovska, L., 2003. Ekoloho-heohrafichne raionuvania Ternopilskoi oblasti [Ecological-geographical demarcation of Ternopil region]. Scientific Notes of Ternopil Volodymyr Hnatiuk National Pedagogical University. Series Geography 2, 31–36 (in Ukrainian).
Yehorova, T., 2014. Ekoloho-heohimichni protsesy mihratsii kobaltu v ahrolandshaftah Ukrainy [Ecological-geochemical processes of cobalt migration in agricultural landscapes of Ukraine]. Visnyk Ahrarnoi Nauky 6, 58–63 (in Ukrainian).