Conceptual model of management the vital state plant eсomorрhs by the criteria of adaptation mechanisms


  • T. Z. Moskalets Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University
  • V. K. Rybalchenko Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv
Keywords: morphology-physiological and biochemical markers of conformation, Triticum аestivum, Secale cereale, Triticum trispecies

Abstract

On the basis of representatives of the tribe Triticеae (Triticum аestivum L., T. trispecies Shulind, Secale cereale L.) we have developed a conceptual model of management of the vital state of anthropogenically transformed ecosystems by the criteria of adaptation mechanisms, that are important for improving the controls of the vitality of culturivated plant species within certain ecosystems. Morpho-physiological and ontogenetic features of plants are considered as exogenous manifestation of adaptation to certain amplitude of ecological factors. According to preferences of the representatives of the tribe Triticeae for environmental conditions the plants were ranked by hygo-, helio-, trophomorphous affiliation as ecomorphs and subecomorphs. We established that an exogenous manifestation of high levels of adaptability of plant organisms to a variety of stress winter conditions was high photoperiodic sensitivity, which is manifested in morphological and physiological mechanisms, including weak growth in autumn and late spring vegetation restoration. The criteria of frost and winter resistance of plants are the accumulation of high overall sugar content in the node tillering (26–38 mg/g) as cryoprotectants and energy sources and their economical expenditure during the autumn-winter period. In drought resistant ecotypes growing in various habitats we detected smaller length, width and therefore area of flag leaf, however, the high index of leaf lamina, compared to leaves from less drought-prone areas. Expression was manifested of adaptive morphological and physiological changes (high index of leaf, glossy sheen, long duration of green colorin the flag leaf, the presence of awns, significant increase in dry mass for arid conditions caused by presence of alleles of genes of drought-resistant Dreb 1 glutenin Glu-D1, gliadin Gli and high protein in the grain (14.2–18.0%). The more drought-resistant plants have an inherent ability to mobilize their best adaptation mechanisms under adverse abiotic environmental conditions, which manifests itself in lower enzyme activity in flag leaf in the phase of earing-flowering and indicates a lower intensity of oxidative processes , induced rearrangements of the antioxidant protective system. 

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Published
2016-03-20
Section
Articles