The use of sensory analysis in biotechnology of the cultivation of macromycetes

  • K. M. Vlasenko Ukrainian State University of Chemical Technology
  • O. V. Kuznetcova Ukrainian State University of Chemical Technology
Keywords: profile analysis, aroma, descriptor of aroma, Pleurotus ostreatus, aroma profile


Sensory analysis is the most ancient and inexpensive method of assessing the quality of food products. Consumer demand for the fruit bodies of mushrooms is due to their unique taste and aroma. Profile methods of sensory analysis are used in quality control, for characterising the differences between food products and for determining the impact of various factors on the quality of the test product. The aim of this research is to study the influence of different types of substrates on the character and intensity of arom     a of the dried fruit bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) Kumm. IBK–1535 using the sensory profile method. The substrates for the cultivation of mushrooms were selected from waste from the agricultural and wood processing industries: sunflower husks, wheat straw, waste from the cleaning of seed corn, and sawdust of deciduous trees and oak bark. The preparation and sterilization of substrates was performed according to standard techniques. During the process of cultivation we determined the culture-morphological indices of development of the mycelium: the duration of growth in the substrate, time of appearance of the primordia, the number of formed fruiting bodies of mushrooms, the average biomass of the fruiting bodies. We did not detect any significant differences between substrates in the growth rate of mycelia. The best culture-morphological indices of growth and development of mycelia were identified for the corn waste substrate. This substrate had the greatest number of primordia, while the lowest was for wheat straw. The mycelium of P. ostreatus IBK-1535 was white, fluffy, and denser on substrates of corn waste, sunflower husks and oak bark. The sensory profile analysis was performed according to ISO 6564:1885.1 g of dried fruiting bodies was crushed, placed in glass vials with stoppers and heated to +35…+40 °C for a better emission of volatile compounds. A five person degustation commission was trained to undertake the sensory analysis. First, using sensory analysis, the degustation commission determined the following descriptors of odour for the fruiting bodies of the fungi: mushroom, woody, grassy, sweet, sour. Then the intensity of the aroma of each sample was assessed on a five-point scale. The most characteristic mushroom aroma of the dried fruit bodies was obtained when oak bark was the substrate for cultivation. The samples of mushroom grown on sawdust and waste corn had a similar aroma. The samples obtained for sunflower husk and wheat straw had a slight mushroom aroma with grassy and sour notes. Thus, the use of the sensory profile method of analysis makes it possible to assess the degree of intensity of aroma of fruit bodies of higher edible mushrooms in relation to the conditions of their cultivation without having to use complicated instrumental methods of analysis. Moreover, sensory profile analysis can be used to monitor the odours and aromas of mushrooms, which are cultivated in artificial conditions, for the adjustment of the cultivation process and for conducting a rapid appraisal of the quality of mushroom products. 


Asmore, L., Craske, J.D., Srzednicki, G., 2014. Volatile compounds in fresh, dried and cooked dried Agaricus bisporus using ambient temperature vacuum distillation. Int. Food Res. J. 21(1), 263–268.
Atramentova, L.O., Utevs’ka, O.M., 2014. Statystyka dlja biologiv [Statistics for biologists]. NTMT, Kharkiv (in Ukrainian).
Buhalo, A.S., Bis’ko, N.A., Solomko, J.F., Bilaj, V.T., 2004. Kul’tivirovanie sjedobnyh i lekarstvennyh gribov [The cultivation of edible and medicinal mushrooms]. Chernobyl’interinform, Kyiv (in Russian).
Cho, I.N., Lee, S.M., Kim, S.Y., Choi, H.-K., Kim, K.-O., Kim, Y.-S., 2007. Differentiation of aroma characteristics of pinemushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) of different grades using gas chromatography-olfactometry and sensory analysis. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55(6), 2323–2328. >>
Cronin, P.A., Ward, M.K., 1971. The characterization of some mushroom volatiles. J. Sci. Food Agric. 22(9), 477–479. >>
Duborasova, T.J., 2007. Sensornyj analiz pishhevyh produktov. Degustacija vin [Sensory analysis of food products. Wine degustation]. Moscow (in Russian).
Guedes de Pinho, P., Ribeiro, B., Goncalves, R.F., Baptista, P., Valentao, P., Seabra, R.M., Andrade, P.B., 2008. Aroma compounds in eleven edible mushroom species: Relationship between volatile profile and sensorial characteristics. Expression of Multidisciplinary Flavor Science 8, 467–471.
Hiraide, M., Miyazaki, Y., Shibata, Y., 2004. The smell and odorous components of dried shiitake mushroom, Lentinula edodes I: Relationship between sensory evaluations and amounts of odorous components. J. Wood Sci. 50(4), 358–364. >>
Mata, G., Valdez, K., Mendoza, R., Trigos, A., 2014. HS/GC-MS analyzed chemical composition of the aroma of fruiting bodies of two species of genus Lentinus (higher basidiomycetes). Int. J. Med. Mushrooms 16(5), 477–484. >>
Misharina, T.A., Muhutdinova, C.M., Zharikova, G.G., Terenina, M.B., Krikunova, N.I., 2008. Vlijanie termicheskoj obrabotki na sostav letuchih komponentov belyh gribov (Boletus edulis) [Effect of heat treatment on the composition of the volatile components of white mushrooms (Boletus edulis)]. Himija Rastitel’nogo Syr’ja 3, 97–101 (in Russian).
Morath, S.U., Hung, R., Bennet, J.W., 2012. Fungal volatile organic compounds: A review with emphasis on their biotechnological potential. Fungal Biol. Rev. 26, 73–83. >>
Pyysalo, H., 1976. Identification of volatile compounds in seven edible fresh mushrooms. Acta Chem. Scand. 30(3), 235–244. >>
Rapior, S., Cavalie, S., Andary, C., Pelissier, Y., Marion, C., Bessiere, J.-M., 1996. Investigation of some volatile components of seven fresh wild mushrooms (basidiomycetes). J. Essent. Oil Res. 8, 199–201. >>
Reineccius, G. (ed.), 1992. Source book of flavors. Springer. Gaithersburg, Maryland.
Rodina, T.G., 2004. Sensornyj analiz prodovol’stvennyh tovarov [Sensory analysis of food products]. Akademija, Moscow (in Russian).
Rodina, T.G., Vuks, G.A., 1994. Degustacionnyj analiz produktov [Tasting food analysis]. Kolos, Moscow (in Russian).
Stijve, T., Amazonas, M.A., Giller, V., 2004. Characterization of flavor and taste compounds in Agaricus blazei Murill sensu Heinem., the cultivated almond mushroom. Australasian Mycologist 22(3), 116–122.
Zawirska-Wojtasiak, R., Siwulski, M., Mildner-Szkudlarz, S., Wasowicz, E., 2009. Studies on the aroma of different species and strains of Pleurotus measured by GH/MS, sensory analysis and electronic nose. Acta Sci. Pol. 8(1), 47–61.
Zawirska-Wojtasiak, R., Siwulski, M., Wasowicz, E., Sobieralski, K., 2007. Volatile compounds of importance in the aroma of cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus at different conditions of cultivation. Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 57(3), 367–372.
Zhou, J., Feng, T., Ye, R., 2015. Differentiation of eight commercial mushrooms by electronic nose and gas chromatographymass spectrometry. Journal of Sensors 2015, Article ID 374013. >>