Effect of gibberellin and retardants on morphogenesis, photosynthetic apparatus and productivity of the potato
AbstractWe investigated the influence of gibberellin and antigibberellin agents (tebuсonazolе and chlormequat-сhloride) on the growth, development, leaf apparatus, formation of the mesostructure, net photosynthetic productivity, contents of different forms of carbohydrates and nitrogen compounds in the vegetative organs of potatoes of the Sante sort and their productivity. We established that the use of tebuconazole and chlormequat-сhloride reduced the linear dimensions of plants and increased the number of leaves on them, the mass of damp matter of leaves and their area. Gibberellic acid increased plant height and leaf area significantly. Gibberellic acid and tebuconazole thickened the laminae by cell proliferation of the main photosynthetic tissue – chlorenchyma. The volume of the cells of palisade parenchyma increased under the influence of these agents. The size of the spongy parenchyma cells increased due to the action of the growth stimulator. The content of chlorophyll in potato leaves was reduced significantly after processing by gibberellic acid and it grew after application of tebuconazole. Content of photosynthetic pigments tended to increase due to action of chlormequat-сhloride. It was found that retardants increased starch content and protein nitrogen in the roots, stems and tubers with a simultaneous decrease in the sugar content of the vegetative organs. Gibberellic acid reduced the content of sugar and starch in the roots, stems and leaves and increased their content in the tubers. The hormone reduced content of protein nitrogen in leaves. Gibberellin and antigibberellin agents increased the weight of dry matter in the plants, raised net photosynthetic productivity and optimized productivity of the culture. Treatment of potato tubers with the retardants during the dormant period led to slower germination, which contributed to preservation of production.
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