Structure of the community of nesting birds in a ravine oak wood in the valley of the Oskol river


  • A. A. Atemasov National Nature Park "Dvorichanskiy" V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University
  • T. A. Atemasova V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University
  • T. N. Devjatko V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University
  • G. L. Goncharov V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University
Keywords: avifauna, nesting populations, island deciduous forests

Abstract

This investigation was carried out in a forest on the southern borders of the Central-Russian Upland, on the Prioskolsky plateau, in the Srednedonskoy subprovince of the Pontic steppe province. The aim of this work is to identify the peculiarities of structure and ways of formation of the breeding population of ravine oak forests on the border of two geographic zones. The objectives of the work were to describe quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the population of the nesting birds of ravine oak forests, as well as provide an analysis of the faunogenesic structure of the nesting bird population. To obtain data on the species composition and density of nesting birds we used the line transect method by D. Hayne – Y. Ravkin. The surveys were carried out in 2011–2015 three times per season (April to June). The indicators of the breeding density of each bird species and the totals for each year were calculated. The Polydominant Simpson index was used to characterize species diversity. To evaluate the uniformity we used the calibrated version of G ‘Alatalo index F’. The calculations were performed using the program PAST. In total we observed 34 species of birds over the 5 years of research. The dynamics of the total density of breeding birds in the period researched (2011–2015) showed a maximum in 2013 (1,711 pairs/km2); the average index for the 5 years was 1,288 ± 133 pairs/km2, which is similar to the characteristics of the populations of birds forests of the steppe zone (Donetsk Ridge, Azov Upland). The dominant and subdominant species comprised 32.2–54.7% of the population, indicating a balanced community, in spite of the insular nature of the forest. The absolute dominant in all years was the Chaffinch (an average of 21.2% of the population); subdominant species were the Robin (11.2%), Great Tit (10.5%) and the Collared Flycatcher (10.3%). Over a third of the total number of birds are the hollow-nesting birds (37.1%); species nesting in the crown were 32.3% and ground-nesting species 25.3%. The geographical and genesis structure of the communities of nesting birds are characterized by predominance of species from Nemoral and Ancient-Nemoral faunal assemblage (in some years up to 90.9% of the population). The species from the forest-steppe faunistic complex of the European type of fauna account for 3.6% to 9.48% of the population of nesting birds, and most of these have the status of third-degree (rare species). The composition of the group of third-degree species is highly diverse: in addition to the elements of Nemoral, Ancient-Nemoral and forest-steppe complexes, it includes species from the tropical and boreal groups. Among third-degree species there is a tendency to decrease in some species from the Nemoral faunal complex with a simultaneous increase in the forest-steppe faunistic component and increase in the homogeneity of the geography-genesis structure as a whole. The significant share of the population from the Nemoral and Ancient-Nemoral species complex, which formed in deciduous forests, is evidence of the origin of the  researched ravine oak wood as a remnant of the once vast oak-forest areas. 

References

Alatalo, R.V., 1981. Problems in the measurement of evenness in ecology. Oikos 37(2), 199–204. >> doi.org/10.2307/3544465
Alatalo, R.V., Alatalo, R.H., 1977. Components of diversity: Multivariate analysis with interaction. Ecology 58(4), 900–906. >> doi.org/10.2307/1936226
Atemasov, A.A., 2013. Strokata muholovka [Pied flycatcher]. Chervona knyga Harkivs’koi’ oblasti. Tokarsky, V.A. (ed.) Tvarynnyj svit. Kharkiv. P. 357 (in Ukrainian).
Atemasova, T.A., 2011. Ornitofauna jak strukturnyj element biogeocenoziv pivnichnogo shodu Ukrai’ny [Avifauna as a structural element of biogeocenoses at North-East Ukraine]. Dnepropetrovsk (in Ukrainian).
Banik, M.V., Vysochin, M.O., Atemasov, A.A., Atemasova, T.A., Devjatko, T.N., 2013. Pticy Dvurechanskogo nacional’nogo prirodnogo parka i ego okrestnostej (Har’kovskaja oblast’) [Birds of Dvorichansky National Park and its outskirts (Kharkiv region)]. Berkut 22(1), 14–24 (In Russian).
Banik, M.V., Vysochin, M.O., Atemasov, A.A., Atemasova, T.A., Devjatko, T.N., 2014. Annotirovannyj spisok ptic Dvurechanskogo nacional’nogo parka [An annotated check-list of the birds of Dvоrichanskyi National Park]. Vіsnik Harkіvs’kogo Nacіonal’nogo Unіversitetu іmenі V.N. Karazіna. Serіja bіologіja 19, 52–61 (in Russian).
Baryshnikova, O.N., Mezenceva, E.M., Miharevich, M.V., 2009. Ostrovnye lesa kak reliktovyj jelement stepnoj i lesostepnoj zon [Island forests as a relict element of the steppe and forest steppe zones]. Vestnik Altajskogo Agrarnogo Universiteta 60, 63–66 (in Russian).
Belgard, A.L., 1950. Lesnaja rastitel’nost’ jugo-vostoka USSR [Forest vegetation of South-East of USSR]. Kiev (in Russian).
Belik, V.P., 2000. Pticy stepnogo Pridon’ja. Formirovanie fauny, ee antropogennaja transformacija i voprosy ohrany [Birds pridonya steppe. Formation of fauna and anthropogenic transformation and preservation questions]. Rostov-na Donu (in Russian).
Brown, W.P., Sullivan, P.J., 2005. Avian community composition in isolated forest fragments: A conceptual revision. Oikos 111, 1–8. >> doi.org/10.1111/j.0030-1299.2005.13725.x
Chernyshev, A.A., 2010. Nekotorye tendencii razvitija ornitokompleksov zakrytyh mestoobitanij central’noj Lesostepi [Some developmental trends in ornithological complexes in the closed habitats of the Central Forest-Steppe]. Uchenye Zapiski. Jelektronnyj Nauchnyj Zhurnal Kurskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta 15, 30–43 (in Russian).
Demchenko, M.A., Demchenko, O.M, 1971. Fiziko-geograficheskoe rajonirovanie Har’kovskoj oblasti [Geographical zoning Kharkov region]. Trudy Har’kovskogo Otdela Geograficheskogo Obshhestva Ukrainy 8, 54–67 (in Russian).
Didukh, Y.P., Shelyag-Sosonko, Y.R., 2003. Heobotanichne rayonuvannya Ukrayiny [Geobotanical zoning of Ukraine]. Ukrai’ns’kyj Botanichnyj Zhurnal 60(1), 6–17 (in Ukrainian).
Evchenko, J.N., 2007. Faktory, vlijajushhie na produktivnost’ bajrachnyh dubrav [Factors affecting the productivity of oak gully]. Vestnik Voronezhskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta Ser. Geographia Geoecologia 2, 103–105 (in Russian).
Gudina, A.N., 1993. Struktura naselenija ptic bajrachnyh dubrav doliny r. Oskol [The structure of the bird population of gullies oak Oskol’ river valley]. Pticy Bassejna Severskogo Donca 1, 70–72 (in Russian).
Hammer, Ø., Harper, D.A.T., Ryan, P.D., 2001. PAST: Paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontol. Electron. 4(1), 9.
Kalinichenko, N.P., 2000. Dubravy Rossii [Oakwood of Russia]. Moskow (in Russian).
Kharchenko, N.N., 2013. K voprosu o proishozhdenii dubrav Central’noj Lesostepi [On the origin of the Central forest-steppe oak forests]. Lesotehnicheskiy Zhurnal 3, 43–50 (in Russian).
Kuzjakin, A.P., 1962. Zoogeografija SSSR [Zoogeography of USSR]. Scientific notes of the Moscow Regional Pedagogical Institute. Biogeography 3, 182 (in Russian).
Lichtein, J.W., Simons, T.R., Franzerb, K.E., 2002. Landscape effects on breeding songbird abundance in managed forests. Ecol. Appl. 12(3), 836–857. >> doi.org/10.2307/3060993
Lugovoj, A.E., Kjazhin, I.S., Chairkina, A.S., 1978. Struktura naselenija ptic ostrovnyh listvennyh lesov Prisur’ja [The structure of the island population of birds of deciduous forests Prisurya]. Geographia I Ecologia Nazemnyh Pozvonochnyh 3, 75–85.
Martı’nez-Morales, M.A., 2005. Nested species assemblages as a tool to detect sensitivity to forest fragmentation: The case of cloud forest birds. Oikos 108, 634–642. >> doi.org/10.1111/j.0030-1299.2005.13706.x
Mikhno, V.B., 2014. Landshaftnyj aspekt proizrastanija, differenciacii i strukturnoj organizacii dubrav srednerusskoj lesostepi [Landscape aspect of growth, differentiation and the structural organization of the Central Russian oak forest]. Vestnik Voronezhskogo Universiteta. Ser. Geographia. Geoecologia 1, 9–17 (in Russian).
Mil’kov, F.N., 1950. Lesostep’ Russkoj ravniny [Forrest-steppe at the Russian Plains]. Мoscow (in Russian).
Molinari, J., 1989. A calibrated index for the measurement of evenness. Oikos 56(3), 319–326. >> doi.org/10.2307/3565616
Nikolov, S.C., 2013. Bird assemblages in naturally fragmented upland forests in Pirin National Park, Bulgaria. Acta Zool. Bulg. 65(4), 493–504.
Ostrivnaya, Y.I., Didukh, Y.P., 2005. Jekologicheskie osobennosti granicy mezhdu Lesostep’u i Step’u Ukrajiny [Ecological features of the border between forest and steppe of Ukraine]. Izuchenie i sohranenie prirodnyh ecosistem zapovednikov Lesostepnoj zony. Kursk. P. 45–48 (in Russian).
Pilipenko, D.V., 2009. Gnezdjashhiesja pticy bajrachnyh lesov Doneckoj oblasti [Breeding birds of bayrachnye forests of Donetsk region]. Visnyk Donec’kogo Nacional’nogo Universitetu, Pryrodnychi Nauky 2, 270–277 (in Russian).
Piskunov, V.V., Davidenko, T.N., 2010. Vlijanie struktury dubrav juzhnoj chasti Privolzhskoj vozvyshennosti na vidovoe raznoobrazie ptic [Influence of the structure of the oak forests of the southern Volga Uplands on the species diversity of birds]. Lesnoe Hozjajstvo 1, 66–70 (in Russian).
Ravkin, Y.S., 1967. K metodike ucheta ptic v lesnyh landshaftah [For the treatment of the birds in the forest landscapes]. Priroda ochagov kleshhevogo jencefalita na Altae (Severo-Vostochnaja chast’). Nauka, Novosibirsk. P. 66–75 (in Russian).
Rjabcev, I.S., Rjabceva, I.M., Tihodeeva, M.J., 2001. Osobennosti vozobnovlenija shirokolistvennyh porod v bajrachnom lesu (na primere uchastka “Ostras’evy Jary” Gosudarstvennogo prirodnogo zapovednika “Belogor’e”) [Features renewed broad-leaved trees in the forest gully (for example, site “Ostrasevy Yary” of State Natural Reserve “Belogor’e”]. Vestnik Sankt-Petersburgskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta 1, 345–350 (in Russian).
Schluter, D., 1984. A variance test for detecting species associations, with some examples applications. Ecology 65(3), 998–1005.
Shtegman, B.K., 1938. Osnovy ornitogeograficheskogo delenija Palearktiki [Basics ornithogeographic division of Palaearctic]. Fauna SSSR: Pticy. Moscow, Leningrad, 1(2), 158 (in Russian).
Teyssèdre, A., Robert, A., 2014. Contrasting effects of habitat reduction, conversion and alteration on neutral and non neutral biological communities. Oikos 123, 857–865. >> doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2013.00928.x
Vergeles, J.I., 1993. Zagal’ni rysy naselennja ptahiv lisovyh biogeocenoziv Harkivshhyny [General traits of bird population of the forest biogeocenoses in the Kharkov Region]. Berkut 2, 14–15 (in Ukrainian).
Vergeles, J.I., 1994. Kolichestvennye uchety naselenija ptic: Obzor sovremennyh metodov [Quantitative surveys of the bird population: A review of modern methods]. Berkut 3(1), 43–48 (in Russian).
Vsevolodova-Perel’, T.S., Grjuntal’, S.J., 1995. Struktura i funkcionirovanie pochvennogo naselenija dubrav Srednerusskoj lesostepi [The structure and function of the soil population of the Central Russian oak forest zone]. Moscow (in Russian).
Published
2016-10-04
Section
Articles