The effect of motor vehicle emission on morphological and physiological characteristics of Rhus typhyna

  • О. Р. Dzhygan Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University
Keywords: lead, cadmium, pollutants, chlorophyll, growth


This article analyses changes of morphological indicators of Rhus typhyna L. in roadside plantations in Pavlograd, Ukraine. Experimental plots were placed at a distance from 1 to 130 m from the road. The control group of plants was at a distance of 1500 m from the highway. The plants were measured for length and thickness of annual sprout, number of leaves on it, the content of chlorophyll in leaves and accumulation of cadmium and lead in the tissues of these organs. It was found that, compared to the relatively clean area, the greatest decrease in the length and thickness of the annual shoots of the trees in the plantations, was for those which were at a distance of one metre from the highway. The number of leaves on a one-year shoot was significantly decreased compared to controls at all sites except those situated at a distance of one hundred and thirty meters from the path of moving sources of pollution. We evaluated the impact of transport emissions on the assimilatory apparatus. Within the twenty-five meter zone, there was an increase in the area of the leaf. The assimilation surface area was significantly decreased relative to values in the conditionally clean area only in the plants growing at a distance from one to five meters from the road. We identified a negative effect of the ingredients of motor emissions on chlorophyll content in leaves. The amount of chlorophyll a decreased with decreasing distance from the plantation to the road within the forty-meter area. Changes in the content of chlorophyll b lacked a clear pattern. The concentration of this pigment increased compared with control in a five-meter area, at a distance of twenty five meters it significantly decreased and did not differ from the indicators in the relatively clean areas, which were growing at a distance of forty and one hundred and thirty meters from the road. The amount of chlorophyll a + b in the leaves decreased compared to the control. Lead accumulated in these plant organs in the forty-meter zone. The amount of cadmium in the tissues of the leaf was significantly higher than the control values on plots located at a distance of twenty five meters. The strongest negative effects of phytotoxicants on susceptible plants occurred in plantations in the five-meter zone, which led to deterioration of the decorative quality of the plants. 


Alahabadi, A., Ehrampoush, M., Miri, M., Aval, H., Yousefzadeh, S., Ghaffari, H., Ahmadi, E., Talebi, P., Fathabadi, Z., Babai, F., Nikoonahad, A., Sharafi, K., & Hosseini-Bandegharaei, A. (2017). A comparative study on capability of different tree species in accumulating heavy metals from soil and ambient air. Chemosphere, 172, 459–467.
Aznar, J.-C., Richer-Laflèche, M., Bégin, C., & Rodrigue, R. (2008). Spatiotemporal reconstruction of lead contamination using tree rings and organic soil layers. Science of the Total Environment, 407(1), 233–241.
Baccio, D., Castagna, A., Tognetti, R., Ranieri, A., & Sebastiani, L. (2014). Early responses to cadmium of two poplar clones that differ in stress tolerance. Journal of Plant Physiology, 171(18), 1693–1705.
Baltrenataite, E., Lietuvninkas, A., & Baltrenataite, P. (2012). Use of dynamic to assess metal uptake and transfer in plants – example of trees. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 223(7), 4297–4306.
Baycu, G., Tolunay, D., Özden, H., & Günebakan S. (2006). Ecophysiological and seasonal variation in Cd, Pb, Zn and Ni concentrations in the leaves of urban deciduous trees in Istambul. Environmental Pollution, 143, 545–554.
Bessonova, V. P. (2001). Metody fitoindykacii v ocinci ekologichnogo stanu dovkillja [Phytoindication methods in the evaluation of the ecological state of the environment]. Vidavnictvo ZDU, Zaporizhzhja (in Ukrainian).
Bessonova, V. P. (2006). Praktykum z fiziologii roslyn [Workshop on physiology of plants]. PP “Svіdler A. A.”, Dnipropetrovsk (in Ukrainian).
Bessonova, V. P., Lyzhenko, I. I., Mihajlov, O. F., & Kulaeva, O. N. (1984). Vlijanie citokinina na rost rastenij i soderzhanie hlorofilla v listjah v uslovijah zagrjaznenija sredy [The effect of cytokinin on plant growth and chlorophyll content in the leaves in conditions of contamination of environment]. Fiziologija Rastenij, 31(6), 1149–1153 (in Russian).
Bodnaruk, E., Kroll, C., Yang, Y., Hirabayashi, S., Nowak, D., & Endreny, T. (2017). Where to plant urban tree? A spatially explicit methodology to explore ecosystem service tradeoffs. Landscape and Urban Planning, 157, 457–467.
Brunner, I., Luster, J., Günthardt-Goerg, M., & Frey, B. (2008). Heavy metal accumulation and phytostabilisation potential of treefine roots in a contaminated soil. Environmental Pollution, 152(3), 559–568.
Bussotti, F., & Pollastrini, M. (2015). Evaluation of leaf features in forest trees: Methods, techniques, obtainable information and limits. Ecological Indicators, 52, 219–230.
Candekova, O. P., & Neverova, O. A. (2010). Vlijanie vybrosov avtotransporta na pigmentnyj kompleks listev drevesnyh rastenij [The influence of emissions of motor transport on pigment complex of leaves of woody plants]. Izvestija Samarskogo Nauchnogo Centra Rossijskoj Akademii Nauk, 12, 853–859 (in Russian).
Chropeňova, M., Klemmová Gregušková, E., Karásková, P., Přibylová, P., Kukučka, P., Baráková, D., & Čupr, P. (2016). Pine needles and pollen grains of Pinus mugo Turra – A biomonitoring tool in high mountain habitats identifying environmental contamination. Ecological Indicators, 66, 132–142.
Clemens, C. (2001). Molecular mechanisms of plant metal tolerance and homeostasis. Planta, 212, 475–486.
Deljanin, V. I., Tomašević, M. N., Aničić, M. P., Antanasijević, D. Z., Perić-Grujić, A. A., & Ristić, M. D. (2013). Lead isotopic composition in tree leaves as tracers of lead in an urban environment. Ecological Indicators, 45, 640–647.
Erofeeva, E. A., & Naumova, M. M. (2010). Vzaymosvjaz fyzyologo-morfology cheskyh pokazatelej lystovoj plastynky berezy povysloj s soderzhanyem v nej tjazhelyh metallov [Interrelationship of physiological and morphological parameters of birch leaf lamina with heavy metals content]. Vestnyk Nyzhegorodskogo Unyversyteta imeni N. Y. Lobachevskogo, 1, 140–143 (in Russian).
Faly, L. I., & Brygadyrenko, V. V. (2014). Patterns in the horizontal structure of litter invertebrate communities in windbreak plantations in the steppe zone of the Ukraine. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 54(4), 414–420.
Gueguen, F., Still, P., Geagea, M., & Boutin, R. (2012). Atmospheric pollution in an urban environment by tree bark biomonitoring – Part I: Trace element analysis. Chemosphere, 86(10), 1013–1019.
Gunawardena, J., Egodawatta, P., Ayoko, G., & Goonetilleke, A. (2012). Role of traffic in atmospheric accumulation of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Atmospheric Environment, 54, 502–510.
Ivanchenko, O. Е., & Bessonova, V. P. (2016). Indykacija stanu derevnyh roslyn parkiv m. Dnipropetrovsk za morfofiziologichnymy pokaznykamy [Indication of the condition of woody plants of parks in Dnipropetrovsk on morfo-physiologycal indexes]. Visnyk of Dnipropetrovsk University. Biology, Ecology, 24(1), 109–118 (in Ukrainian).
Kabatta-Pendias, A., & Pendias, H. (1989). Mikrojelementy v pochvah i rastenijah [Microelements in soils and plants]. Mir, Moscow (in Russian).
Karim, Z., Qureshi, B., Mumtaz, M., & Qureshi, S. (2014). Heavy metal content in urban soils as an indicator of anthropogenic and natural influences on landscape of Karachi – A multivariate spatio-temporal analysis. Ecological Indicators, 42, 20–31.
Kocić, K., Spasić, T., Urošević, M., Tomašević, M. (2014). Trees as natural barriers against heavy metal pollution and their role in the protection of cultural heritage. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 15(3), 227–233.
Li, Q., Cheng, H., Zhou, T., Lin, C., & Guo, S. (2012). The estimated atmospheric lead emissions in China, 1990–2009. Atmospheric Environment, 60, 1–8.
Lomaglio, T., Rocco, M., Trupiano, D., De Zio, E., Grosso, A., Marra, M., Delfine, S., Chiatante, D., Morabito, D., & Scippa, G. S. (2015). Effect of short-term cadmium stress on Populus nigta L. detached leaves. Journal of Plant Physiology, 182, 40–48.
Luo, Z., He, J., Polle, A., & Rennenberg, H. (2016). Heavy metal accumulation and signal transduction in herbaceous and woody plants: Paving the way for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency. Biotechnology Advances, 34(6), 1131–1148.
Maljugin, P. N., & Parsaev, E. V. (2012). Izmerenie parametrov i raschet transportnyh potokov [Measurement of parameters and calculation of traffic flows]. SibADI, Omsk (in Russian).
Marx, S. K., Rashid, S., & Stromsoe, N. (2016). Global-scale patterns in anthropogenic Pb contamination reconstructed from natural archives. Environmental Pollution, 213, 283–298.
Molchanov, A. A., & Smirnov, V. V. (1967). Metodika izuchenija prirosta drevesnyh rastenij [Methods of studying the growth of woody plants]. Nauka, Moscow (in Russian).
Moroz, K. O., Lygun, A. V., & Brygadyrenko, V. V. (2011). Sezonna dynamika pidstylkovoji mezofauny antropogenno transformovanykh ecosystem m. Dniprodzerzhyns’k [Litter mesofauna seasonal dynamics of anthropogeni cally transformed ecosystems in Dniprodzerzhinsk city]. Visnyk of Dnipro petrovsk University. Biology, Ecology, 19(2), 93–102.
Moskalyk, G. G., & Burtova, J. N. (2016). Ocenka еkologicheskogo sostojanija urboеkosistemу po foliarnуm pokazateljam Tilia cordada Mill. [Assessing the environmental status of urban ecosystem on Tilia cordada Mill. indica tors]. Еkologycheskij Monitoring i Bioraznoobrazie, 11(1), 88–91 (in Russian).
Nicola, F., Baldantoni, D., Sessa, L., Monaci, F., Bargagli, R., & Alfani, A. (2015). Distribution of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in holm oak plant-soil system evaluated along urbanization gradients. Chemosphere, 134, 91–97.
Nicola, F., Spagnuolo, V., Baldantoni, D., Sessa, L., Alfani, A., Bargagli, R., Monaci, F., Terracciano, S., & Giordano, S. (2013). Improved biomonitoring of airbone contaminants by combined use of holm oak leaves and epiphytic moss. Chemosphere, 92(9), 1224–1230.
Norouzi, S., Khademi, H., Cano, A., & Acosta, J. (2005). Using plane tree leaves for biomonitoring of dust borne heavy metals: A case study from Isfahan, Central Iran. Ecological Indicators, 57, 64–73.
Oleksijchenko, N. O., Borshhevskyj, M. A., & Kytajeva, O. I. (2014). Sumah olenerogyj (Rhus typhyna L.) v umovah Kyjeva [Staghorn (Rhus typhyna L.) under the conditions of Kyiv]. FOP “Gavrylenko V. M.”, Korsun-Shevchenkivskyj (in Ukrainian).
Pinamonti, F., Stringari, G., Gasperi, F., & Zorzi, G. (1997). The use of compost: Its effects on heavy metal levels in soil and plants. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 21(2), 129–143.
Ponomarova, O. A., & Bessonova, V. P. (2009). Vplyv rostu lyp u lunkah u asfalti prydorozhnoi zony na pokaznyky asymiljacijnogo aparatu [The impact of the growth of the lime trees in the holes in the asphalt roadside area on the performance of the assimilation apparatus]. Pytannja Bioindykacii ta Ekologii, 14(2), 55–62 (in Ukrainian).
Pretzsch, H., Biber, P., Uhl, E., Danlhausen, J., Rotzer, T., & Caldentey, J. (2015). Crown size and growing space requirement of common tree species in urban centres, parks and forests. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 14(3), 466–479.
Priуmak, O. P. (2008). Vpliv polіstimulіna K na fotohіmіchnu aktivnіst’ hloroplastіv dejakyh vydіv dekoratyvnyh kvіtnykovyh roslyn za umov zabrudnennja vykydamy avtotransportu [Effect of polistymulin K on photochemical activity of chloroplasts of some species of ornamental flower plants in the conditions of pollution by emissions of motor transport]. Pitannja Bіoіndikacіi ta Ekologіi, 13(2), 78–87 (in Ukrainian).
Pulles, T., Denier van der Gon, H., Appelman, W., & Verheul, M. (2012). Emission factors for heavy metals from diesel and petrol used in Eurorean vehicles. Atmospheric Environment, 61, 641–651.
Rascio, N., F., & Navari-Izzo, F. (2011). Heavy metal hyperaccumulating plants: How and why do they do it? And what makes them so interesting? Plant Science, 180(2), 169–181.
Rodriguez, J. H., Wannaz, E. D., Salazar, M. J., Pignata, M. L., Fangmeier, A., & Franzaring, J. (2012). Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the tree foliage of Eucalyptus rostrata, Pinus radiata and Populus hybridus in the vicinity of a large aluminium smelter in Argentina. Atmospheric Environment, 55, 35–42.
Shahid, M., Dumat, C., Khalid, S., Schreck, E., Xiong, T., & Niazi, T. (2017). Foliar heavy metal uptake, toxicity and detoxification in plants: A comparison of foliar and root metal uptake. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 325, 36–58.
Tomašević, M. N., Antanasijević, D. Z., Aničić, M. P., Deljanin, V. I., Perić-Grujić, A. A., & Ristić, M. D. (2013). Lead concentrations and isotope ration in urban tree leaves. Ecological Indicators, 24, 504–509.
Ugolini, F., Tognetti, R., Raschi, A., & Bacci, L. (2013). Quercus ilex L. as bioaccumulator for heavy metals in urban areas: Effectiveness of leaf washing with distilled water and considerations on the trees distance from traffic. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 12(4), 576–587.
Vetchynnykova, L. V., Kuznecova, T. J., & Tytov, A. F. (2013). Osobennosty na koplenyja tjazhelyh metallov v lystjah drevesnyh rastenyj na urbanyzovan nyh terrytoryjah v uslovyjah severa [Pattern of heavy metals accumulation in leaves of trees in urbanizing areas in the north]. Trudy Karel’skogo Nauchnogo Centra RAN, 3, 68–73 (in Russian).
Zhang, P., Liu, Y., Chen, X., Yang, Z., & Zhu, M. (2016). Pollution resistance assessment of existing landscape plants on Beijing streets based on air pollution tolerance index method. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 138, 212–223.
Zhou, J., Wan, H., Qin, S., He, J., & Lyu, D. (2016). Net cadmium flux and gene expression in relation to differences in cadmium accumulation and translocation in four apple rootstocks. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 130, 95–105.