Chemical composition of essential oil and antimicrobial properties of Chrysantemum coronarium (Asteraceae)

Keywords: garland chrysanthemum, сhromatographic analysis, extract, microorganisms, antimicrobial activity


Garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.), or edible chrysanthemum, is a valuable food, medicinal, decorative plant, containing a considerable amount of biologically active substances. The herb is widely used as a dietary food in South-East Asia, whereas in spite of being spread throughout Ukraine, it is known there rather as a decorative than a vegetable plant. Introductory studies of C. coronarium were conducted on experimental plots at the Botanical Gardens of Zhytomyr National Agroecological University, which is located in Ukrainian Polesia. Chromatographic analysis of the essential oil composition was performed on the gas-liquid chromatographer Agilent Technologies 6890 with mass spectrometric detector 5973. The material for chromatographic studies was represented by C. coronarium inflorescences. The antimicrobial properties of the ethanolic extract from the areal parts of C. coronarium were studied on test-cultures, collected from the Ukrainian Collection of Microorganisms (UCM, Institute of Microbiology and Virology of NAS Ukraine), the test-cultures being: Escherichia coli UCM B-906 (ATCC 25922), Staphilococcus aureus UCM B-904 (ATCC 25923), Pseudomonas aeruginosa UCM B-900 (ATCC 9027), Candida albicans UCM Y-1918 (ATCC 885-653). The antimicrobial effect of the investigated substances was studied by the method of serial successive dilutions which determined minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC). This article shows the results of chromatographic analysis of essential oil obtained from C. coronarium inflorescences and focuses on antimicrobial activity of the herb against the test cultures of the following microorganisms: E. coli, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, C. albicans. In the essential oil 26 compounds have been determined, 23 of which have been identified, the major components being: chrysanthemyl acetate (24.4%), chrysanthemol (21.8%), chrysanthenyl acetate (7.6%), camphor (7.3%), β-farnesene (5.9%), α-bisabolol (5.6%). C. coronarium ethanolic extract showed antimicrobial activity against gram-positive strains of S. aureus. In comparison with the solvent, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) increased 4 and 2 times, respectively. We have observed only fungistatic activity against the fungus C. albicans – MBC values showed a twofold increase compared with the solvent. Inhibitory, bactericidal/fungicidal properties of the extract against gram-negative strains of E. coli and P. aeruginosa have not been detected. The experimental data prove that there is a good perspective for further study and application of C. coronarium in pharmacy and the food industry. 


Alvarez-Castellanos, P. P., & Pascual-Villalobos, M. J. (2003). Effect of fertilizer on yield and composition of flowerhead essential oil of Chrysanthemum coronarium (Asteraceae) cultivated in Spain. Industrial Crops and Products, 17(2), 77–81.
Alvarez-Castellanos, P. P., Bishop, C. D., & Pascual-Villalobos, M. J. (2001). Antifungal activity of the essential oil of flowerheads of garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium) against agricultural pathogens. Phytochemistry, 57(1), 99–102.
Bar-Eyal, M., Sharon, E., & Spiegel, Y. (2006). Nematicidal activity of Chrysanthemum coronarium. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 114(4), 427–433.
Basta, A., Pavlović, M., Couladis, M., & Tzakou, O. (2007). Essential oil composition of the flowerheads of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. from Greece. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 22(3), 197–200.
Cherevchenko, T. M., Rahmetov, D. B., & Gaponenko, M. B. (ed.) (2012). Zberezhennja ta zbagachennja roslynnyh resursiv shljahom introdukcii', selekcii' ta biotehnologii' [Conservation and enrichment of plant resources through introduction, plant selective breeding and biotechnology]. Fitosociocentr, Kyiv (in Ukrainian).
Chernogorod, L. B., & Vinogradov, B. A. (2006). Jefirnye masla nekotoryh vidov roda Achillea L., soderzhashhie fragranol [Essential oils of some species of the genus Achillea L., containing fragranol]. Rastitel'nye Resursy, 42(2), 61–68 (in Russian).
Choi, J. M., Lee, E. O., Lee, H. J., Kim, K. H., Ahn, K. S, Shim, B. S, Kim, N. I, Song, M. C., Baek N. I., & Kim, S. H. (2007). Identification of campesterol from Chrysanthemum coronarium L. and its antiangiogenic activities. Phytotherapy Research, 21, 954–959.
Chuda, Y., Ono, H., Ohnishi-Kameyama, M., Nagata, T., & Tsushida, T. (1996). Structural identification of two antioxidant quinic acid derivatives from garland (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.). Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 44, 2037–2039.
Dokuparthi, S. K., & Manikanta, P. (2015). Phytochemical and pharmacological studies on Chrysanthemum coronarium L.: А review. Journal of Drug Discovery and Therapeutics, 27, 11–16.
Donia, А. М. (2014). Biological activity of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. extracts. Annual Research and Review in Biology, 4(16), 2617–2627.
El-Masry, S., Abou-Donia, A. H. A., Darwish, F. A., Abou-Karam, M. A., Grenza, M., & Bohlmanna, F. (1984). Sesquiterpene lactones from Chrysanthemum coronarium. Phytochemistry, 23(12), 2953–2954.
Flamini, G., Cioni, P. L., & Morelli, I. (2003). Differences in the fragrances of pollen, leaves, and floral parts of garland (Chrysanthemum coronarium) and composition of the essential oils from flowerheads and leaves. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51(8), 2267–2271.
Geest, G., Choi, Y. H., Arens, P., Post, A., Liu, Y., & Meeteren, U. (2016). Genotypic differences in metabolomic changes during storage induced-degreening of chrysanthemum disk florets. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 115, 48–59.
Harborne, J. B., Heywood, V. H., & Saleh, N. A. M. (1970). Chemosystematics of the composiate: Flavonoid patterns in the Chrysanthemum complex of the tribe Anthemideae. Phytochemistry, 9(9), 2011–2017.
Hosni, K., Hassen, I., Sebei, H., & Casabianca, H. (2013). Secondary metabolites from Chrysanthemum coronarium (Garland) flowerheads: Chemical composition and biological activities. Industrial Crops and Products, 44, 263–271.
Kim, J., Choi, J. N., Ku, K. M., Kang, D., Kim, J. S., Park, J. H. Y., & Lee, C. H. (2011). A correlation between antioxidant activity and metabolite release during the blanching of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 75(4), 674–680.
Lai, J.-P., Lim, Y. H., Su, J., Shen, H.-M., & Ong, C. N. (2007). Identification and characterization of major flavonoids and caffeoylquinic acids in three Compositae plants by LC/DAD-APCI/MS. Journal of Chromatography B, 848(2), 215–225.
Lograda, T., Ramdani, M., Chalard, P., G. Figueredo, G., Silini, H., & Kenoufi, M. (2013). Chemical composition, antibacterial activity and chromosome number of Algerian populations of two Chrysanthemum species. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 3(8 Suppl 1), S6–S11.
Miller, D. (1976). Eksperimentyi v molekulyarnoy genetike [Experiments in molecular genetics]. Mir, Moscow (in Russian).
Podgorsky, V. S., Kotsoflyak, O. I., Kiprianovoy, E. A., & Gvozdyak, O. R. (ed.) (2007). Ukrainskaya kollektsiya mikroorganizmov. Katalog kultur [Ukrainian collection of microorganisms. The catalogue of culture]. Naukova Dumka, Kyiv (in Ukrainian).
Preedy, V. R. (ed.), 2016. Essential oils in food preservation, flavor and safety. Academic Press, London.
Sebastián, B., Urzúa, A. M., & Vines, M. (2006). Analysis of surface and volatile compounds of flower heads of introduced plants of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. growing wild in Chile. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 21(5), 783–785.
Senatore, F., Rigano, D., De Fusco, R., & Bruno, M. (2004). Composition of the essential oil from flowerheads of Chrysanthemum coronium L. (Asteraceae) growing wild in Southern Italy. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 19(2), 149–152.
Shonouda, M. L., Osman, S., Salama, O., & Ayoub, A. (2008). Insecticidal Effect of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. flowers on the pest Spodoptera littoralis Boisd and its parasitoid Microplitis rufiventris Kok. with identifying the chemical composition. Journal of Applied Sciences, 8(10), 1859–1866.
Syr'e lekarstvennoe rastitel'noe. Metody opredelenija vlazhnosti, soderzhanija zoly, jekstraktivnyh i dubil'nyh veshhestv, jefirnogo masla [Medicinal plant raw material. Methods for determination of moisture, ash content, extractives, tannins, essential oil]. GOST 24027.2–80 [Dejstvujushhij s 1981–01–01]. Moscow, 1988 (in Russian).
Tanaka, S., Koizumi, S., Masuko, K., Makiuchi, N., Aoyagi, Y., Quivy, E., Mitamura, R., Kano, T., Ohkuri, T., Wakita, D., Chamoto, K., Kitamura, H., & Nishimura, T. (2011). Toll-like receptor-dependent IL-12 production by dendritic cells is required for activation of natural killer cell-mediated Type-1 immunity induced by Chrysanthemum coronarium L. International Immunopharmacology, 11(2), 226–232.
Tawaha, K., & Hudaib, M. (2010). Volatile oil profiles of the aerial parts of Jordanian garland, Chrysanthemum coronarium. Pharmaceutical Biology, 48(10), 1108–1114.