Changes in the structural indices of annual shoots of Quercus rubra under anthropogenic impact

  • V. P. Bessonova Dnipro State Agrarian-Economic University
  • A. P. Kryvoruchko Dnipro State Agrarian-Economic University
Keywords: red oak, anthropogenic impact, characteristics, periderm, primary cortex and bark, wood tissue, shoot


Air pollution is one of the important problems of large cities. In connection with this, comprehensive study of the mechanisms of the corresponding reactions of tree species, introduced in the process of landscaping, to various environmen tal factors is required. The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of urban technogenic environmental pollution on the anatomical characteristics of Quercus rubra Linnaeus, 1753 annual shoots. The object of research was 35-year-old plants of Q. rubra, which grew in a non-polluted site (conditionally clean zone), the Botanical Garden of DNU (plot 1), and in a polluted site (roadside planting) (plot 2) of Dnipro City. Industrial emissions of the city’s western, northeastern and northwest industrial complexes also have an effect on plants, depending on the wind direction. For anatomical research, the annual shoots were taken at the tips of the vegetation from the south-eastern side of the model trees at a height of 2 m and fixed in 70% alcohol. Cross sections were made at a distance of 1 cm from the beginning of growth. Phloroglucine was used to dye the cells. The influence of industrial and automobile emissions on the structural parameters of Q. rubra shoots was investigated. We established that the membrane thickened evenly in both control and experimental plants. Cork thickness of Q. rubra shoots growing in the roadside plantation was higher than in plants of the Botanical Garden by 57.5%. Increasing its thickness in plants exposed to atmospheric air pollution has an adaptive value. Q. rubra shoots have a tabulate type of collenchyma, the tangent walls of whose cells thicken. The collenchyma cells of the control variant of shoots are larger. This tissue was thicker in Q. rubra shoots from the polluted site by 26.8% compared to those from the non-polluted zone. The parenchyma cells of the primary cortex were large and contained chloroplasts. The thickness of this histological element on the shoot circumference varied considerably both in the control and experimental variants, which is the result of its uneven formation. This is due to the fact that the shape of the shoot core resembles a pentagonal star, and the layers of phloem and xylem tissues repeat its shape. The thickness of each of them in the cross section of the shoots in various places varied little, while the parenchyma of the primary cortex above the ray cells was narrower, and between them was thicker, as a result the thickness of the shoots was aligned in a circle. In areas where the parenchyma of the primary cortex was narrower, it was better developed in the shoots of experimental plants than the control ones, but where its layer was thicker, it was more developed in plants of the control variant. The diameter of the primary cortex in the shoots of the experimental variant in its narrower parts was 120.5% of the control, and in the broader – 87.6%, which is due to unequal changes in the thickness of the primary cortex parenchyma, possibly with different rates of cell division. In the one-year Q. rubra shoots, the hard bast resembled a circle ruptured by parenchymal cells. Environmental pollution does not affect formation of soft bast in Q. rubra annual shoots. The difference between the thickness of the layer of this element in the control and experimental plants was statistically insignificant. The width of the bark (soft and hard bast) somewhat decreased in shoots of the roadside trees due to the thinning-out of the hard bast. The thickness of the wood tissue of the Q. rubra shoots was practically the same in both variants of the experiment, although it is known that the formation of xylem of certain species of plants is sensitive to environmental pollution. According to our data, the distribution of vessels in the wood of the Q. rubra annual shoots on both experimental sites had no clearly expressed annular-vessel type. On the cross section, the vessels are arranged relatively evenly along the width of the entire ring. The location of the woody parenchyma apotracheal does not depend on the location of vessels. Histochemical reactions showed that a large amount of starch grains and fat drops are deposited in the core and ray cells. The diameter of the core was measured in two directions: in narrower and broader places. Plant shoots of the polluted site have a significantly more developed core in the narrower place by 1.44 times, in the broad – 1.56 times. The adaptation of the Q. rubra shoots to technogenic pollution takes place through thickening of the cork and collenchyma, thereby reducing the possibility of penetration into the internal tissues of industrial and automotive emissions. There was virtually no change in the thickness of the circle of soft bast and wood in conditions of environmental pollution. In the conditions of multicomponent environmental pollution there are adaptive changes in the parameters of the histological elements of the Q. rubra shoots – thickening of the phellem and structural element of the primary cortex – collenchyma, which helps to protect the internal tissues from the penetration.of pollutants. Environmental pollution practically did not affect the thickness of the layer of soft bast and wood in the Q. rubra shoots. This testifies to the stability of the most important functions of the Q. rubra shoots to phytotoxicants of anthropogenic origin. The components of industrial and automotive emissions have a negative effect on the formation of hard bast and core of Q. rubra shoots, which manifests itself in reduction in their thickness. 


Bezuglaja, J. J., Rastorgueva, G. P., & Smirnova, I. V. (1991). Chem dyshit promyshlennyj gorod [What an industrial city breathes]. Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad (in Russian).

Bojarczuk, K., Karolewski, P., Oleksyn, J., Kieliszewska-Rokicka, B., Zytkowiak, M., & Tjoelker, G. (2002). Effect of polluted soil and fertilisation on growth and physiology of Silver Birch (Betula pendula Roth.) seedlings. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 11(5), 483–492.

Braun, M., Margitai, Z., Toth, A., & Leermakers, M. (2007). Environmental monitoring using linden tree leaves as natural traps of atmospheric deposition: A pilot study in Transilvania, Romania. AGD Landscape and Environment, 1(1), 24–35.

Carvalho-Oliveira, R., Amato-Lourenço, L. F., Moreira, T. C. L., Rocha Silva, D. R., Vieira, B. D., Mauad, T., Saiki, M., & Nascimento Saldiva, P. H. (2017). Effectiveness of traffic-related elements in tree bark and pollen abortion rates for assessing air pollution exposure on respiratory mortality rates. Environment International, 99, 161–169.

Doley, D. (2017). Plants as pollution monitors. Encyclopedia of Applied Plant Sciences (Second Edition), 3, 341–346.

Dubovickaja, O. J., & Masalova, L. I. (2013). Perspektivy rasshirenija ustojchivogo assortimenta drevesnyh rastenij dlja landshaftnogo stroitel’stva i ispol’zovaniem severoamerikanskih introducentov [Prospects for expanding the sustainable range of woody plants for landscape construction using exotic species of North American introductions]. Contemporary Horticulture, 4, 80–91 (in Russian).

Dubovickaja, O. J., & Zolotareva, E. V. (2014). Dekorativnolistvennye i hvojnye derev’ja i kustarniki dlja ozelenenija naselennyh mest [Ornamental deciduous and coniferous woody plants for arrangement of green spaces in cities and towns of orel region]. Belgorod State University Scientific Bulletin. Natural Sciences, 29(23), 38–43 (in Russian).

Dzhensen, U. (1965). Botanicheskaja gistohimija [Botanical Histochemistry]. Mir, Moscow (in Russian).

Fu, S., & Gu, Y. (2017). Highway toll and air pollution: Evidence from Chinese cities. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 83, 32–49.

Golykova, M. (2011). Vplyv promyslovogo zabrudnennja na elementy anatomichnoi’ struktury pagoniv kleniv [Influence of industrial pollution on elements of anatomic structures of shoots of maples]. Visnyk of the Lviv University. Series Biology, 57, 242–248 (in Ukrainian).

Gostin, I. (2009). Air pollution effects on the structure of some Fabaceae spacies. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 37(2), 57–63.

Grishko, V. N., Kuchma, V. N., & Radzion, D. V. (1997). Anatomicheskoe stroe nie pobegov nekotoryh drevesnyh rastenij pri zagrjaznenii okruzhajushhej sredy [Anatomical structure of shoots some woody plants with pollution of the environment]. Questions of Bioindication and Ecology, 49–54 (in Russian).

Grodzinskij, D. M. (1983). Nadezhnost’ rastitel’noj sistemy [Reliability of the plant system]. Naukova dumka, Kyiv (in Russian).

Grycaj, Z. V., & Shupranova, L.V. (2015). Vplyv vykydiv Prydniprovs’koi’ TES m. Dnipropetrovs’k na anatomichni pokaznyky stebla dvorichnogo pagona predstavnykiv rodu Tilia [Impact of emissions of Pridneprovsk TPP in Dnipropetrovsk on the anatomical indices of stem of two-year whip of the Tilia genus representatives]. Visnyk of Dnipropetrovsk University. Biology, Ecology, 23(2), 230–235 (in Ukrainian).

Gvozdev, V. K., & Hohlov, A. A. (2016). Osobennosti rosta i produktivnost’ nasazhdenij iskusstvennogo proishozhdenija mestnyh i introducirovannyh drevesnyh vidov [Features of growth and productivity plants artificial origin local and introduced tree species]. Proceedings of Belarusian State Technological University, 183, 106–109 (in Russian).

Jarmishko, V. T. (2012). Hod rosta Pinus sylvestris L. na severnom predele ras prostranenija v uslovijah atmosfernogo zagrjaznenija [The cource of growth of a Pinus sylvestris L. in the northern limit of distributions in the conditions air pollution]. Izvestiya of the Samara Scientific Center of the Russian Aca demy of Sciences, 1(6), 1575–1580 (in Russian).

Jessau, K. (1969). Anatomija rastenij [Anatomy of plants]. Mir, Moscow (in Russian).

Jusypiva, T., & Miasoid, G. (2016). The impact of SO2 and NO2 industrial emission anatomical stem of Salix alba. International Letters of Nature Science, 51, 6–13.

Jusypiva, T. I., & Grycaj, Z. V. (2014). Vplyv aerogennogo zabrudnennja NO2 ta SO2 na anatomichni pokaznyky stebla Caragana arborescens Lam. [Influence of aerogenic SO2 and NO2 pollution on anatomic parameters of Caragana arborescens Lam. stem]. The Journal of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University. Series Biology, 1129, 123–127 (in Ukrainian).

Jusypiva, T. I. (2005). Vplyv promyslovogo zabrudnennja na gistologichni pokaznyky pervynnoi’ kory stebla predstavnykiv rodu Fraxinus L. [Industrial pollution influence on histological indices of stem primary bark of Fraxinus L. genus representatives]. Visnyk of Dnipropetrovsk University. Biology, Ecology, 13(1), 295–301 (in Ukrainian).

Jusypiva, T. I. (2016). Zminy anatomichnyh harakterystyk stebla odnorichnogo pagona Betula pendula Roth. za dii’ antropogennogo navantazhennja [Changes in anatomical characteristics of Betula pendula Roth. annual shoot stems under anthropogenic load pressure]. Visnyk of the Lviv University. Series Biology, 72, 125–133 (in Ukrainian).

Kaakinen, S., Kostianen, K., Saranpaa, P., Kubiske, M., Sober, J., Karnosky, D. F., & Vapaavuri, E. (2007). Stem wood properties of Populus tremula, Betula papyrifera and Acer saccharum sapling after 3 years of treatment to elevated carbon dioxide and ozone. Global Change Biology, 10, 1513–1525.

Kapeljush, N. N., & Bessonova, V. P. (2005). Zmina anatomichnyh pokaznykiv lystkiv Platanus orientalis L. pid dijeju promyslovyh emisij (tehnogennogo navantazhennja) [Change of anatomic parameters of Platanus orientalis L. leaves as reaction on industrial emissions (technogenic pressure)]. Plant Introduction, 1, 81–87 (in Ukrainian).

Klimovich, L. K., Efimenko, V. M., & Mitik, N. V. (2014). Osobennosti landshaftnoj planirovochnoj organizacii dendroparka GLHU “Grodnenskij leshoz” [The peculiarities of landscape planning the organization of the park of the Grodno forestry]. Actual Problems of the Forestry Complex, 38, 175–179 (in Russian).

Korshikov, I. I. (1996). Adaptacija rastenij k uslovijam tehnogennogo zagrjaznenija sredy [Adaptation of plants to the conditions of technogenic contamination of the environment]. Naukova Dumka, Kyiv (in Russian).

Krasnov, V. G., Mamaev, A. A., Smyshljaeva, M. I., Krasnova, V. F., & Kirillov, S. V. (2016). Osobennosti introdukcii duba krasnogo (Quercus rubra) v uslovijah respubliki Marij Jel [Introduction features of red oak (Quércus rúbra) in Mari El Republic]. Electronic Scientific Journal of KubSAU, 123(9), 1968–1378 (in Russian).

Kursanov, L. I., Komarnyc’kyj, M. O., Mejjer, K. G., Razdors’kyj, V. F., & Uranov, O. O. (1952). Botanika. Anatomija i morfologija [Botany. Anatomy and morphology]. Radjans’ka Shkola, Kyiv (in Ukrainian).

Kurteva, M., & Stambolieva, K. (2007). Acer pseudoplatanus L., Acer platanoides L. and Betula pendula Roth. as bioindicators of urban pollution in Sofia. Silva Balcanica, 8(1), 32–46.

Leghari, S. K., & Zaidi, M. A. (2013). Effect of air pollution on the leaf morphology of common plant species of Quetta city. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 45(S1), 447–454.

Miltner, S., & Kupka, I. (2016). Silvicultural potential of northern red oak and its regeneration. Journal of Forest Science, 62, 145–152.

Mohamed, A. H., M’hamed, M., Fatma, M., & Hichem, B. M. (2016). Air pollution mapping with bio-indicators in urban areas. In Sallis, P. (Ed.), Air quality – Measurement and modeling. InTech, Rijeka, Croatia, pp. 163–183.

Nikolaevskij, V. G. (1964). K metodike kolichestvenno-anatomicheskogo izuche nija vlijanija vneshnej sredy na strukturu vegetativnyh organov vysshih rastenij [To the method of quantitative-anatomical study of the influence of the external environment on the structure of the vegetative organs of higher plants]. Botanical Journal, 49(6), 833–838 (in Russian).

Pallachega, R. M., Kytajev, O. I., & Taran, N. J. (2007). Morozostijkist’ magnolij ta l’odoutvorennja u tkanynah pagoniv [Frost resistance of magnolias and ice formation in shoots]. Ukrainian Botanical Journal, 64(6), 891–900 (in Ukrainian).

Pasichnyj, G. V., & Serdjuk, S. M. (2002). Dynamika vazhkyh metaliv v grunto vomu pokryvi u zv’jazku z tehnogennym zabrudnennjam otochujuchogo seredovyshha (na prykladi m. Dnipropetrovs’ka) [Dynamics of heavy metals in the soil cover due to anthropogenic pollution of the environment (for example, Dnipropetrovsk)]. Ecology and Nature Management, 4, 111–117 (in Ukrainian).

Rai, P. K. (2016). Impacts of particulate matter pollution on plants: Implications for environmental biomonitoring. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 129, 120–136.

Rejvn, P., Jeveret, R., & Ajkhorn, S. (1990). Sovremennaja botanika [Contempo rary botany]. Mir, Moscow (in Russian).

Saborit, J. (2009). Effects of air pollution on citrus tree. Tree and Forestry Science Biotechnology, 3, 92–104.

Safdari, V., Ahmed, M., Margaret, S., Devall, M., & Bayramzadeh, V. (2012). Effects of air pollution on morphological and anatomical characteristics of Pinus eldarica wood. Fuuast Journal of Biology, 2(2), 5–12.

Saikawa, E., Kurokawa, J.,Takigawa, M., Borken-Kleefeld, J., Mauzerall, D. L., Horowitz, L. W., & Ohara, T. (2011). The impact of China’s vehicle emissi ons on regional air quality in 2000 and 2020: A scenario analysis. Atmosphe ric Chemistry. Physics, 11, 9465–94840.

Serdjuk, S. M., Docenko, L. V., & Sybul’, T. V. (2007). Naukove obgruntuvannja fitomelioratyvnyh zahodiv v umovah vysokogo avtotransportnogo navanta zhennja [Scientific substantiation of phytomelioration measures in the conditions of high motor loading]. Issues of Steppe Forestry and Steppe Recultivation Land, 36, 192–200 (in Ukrainian).

Song, C., Wu, L., Xie, Y., He, J., Chen, X., Wang, T., Yingchao, L., Jin, T., Wang, A., Liu, Y., Dai, G., Liu, B., Wang, Y., & Mao, H. (2017). Air pollution in China: Status and spatiotemporal variations. Environmental Pollution, 227, 334–347.

Stratu, A., Costica, N., & Costica, M. (2007). Wooden species in the urban green areas and their role in improving the quality of the environment. Present Environment and Sustainable Development, 10(2), 173–184.

Tjurina, E. V. (1982). Znachenie anatomicheskogo metoda dlja vyjasnenija proishozhdenija adaptacionnyh i introdukcionnyh vozmozhnostej rastenij [The value of the anatomical method for elucidating the origin of adaptive and introductory possibilities of plants]. In Non-traditional methods in studies of vegetation in Siberia. Nauka, Novosibirsk, 77–88 (in Russian).

Wimmer, R. (2002). Wood anatomical features in tree-rings as indicators of environmental change. Dendrochronologia, 20, 21–36.

Zhuchenko, A. A. (1988). Adaptivnyj potencial kul’turnyh rastenij (jekologo-geneticheskie osnovy) [Adaptive potential of cultivated plants (ecological and genetic basis)]. Shkiinca, Kishinev (in Russian).