The effect of soil and climatic conditions on the distribution of nutrients in Actinidia arguta leaves

Keywords: fruit vines; climatic edaphic factor; assimilates; mineral nutrients; remobilization.


The patterns of the distribution of nutrients in kiwiberry (Actinidia arguta (Siebold & Zucc.) Planch. ex Miq.), family Actinidiaceae (Gilg & Werderm), leaves growing under different soil and climatic conditions (Ukraine and China) were studied. Using scanning electron microscopy, significant differences were shown in the distribution of assimilates and mineral nutrients in the leaves of kiwiberry cultivated under different climate and soil conditions (Kyiv city, Ukraine and Jiamusi, China). The leaves of plants grown in China have higher concentration of all of the studied nutrients exception for silicon. The differences found in the content of macro- and microelements in plant tissues are consistent with their total content in the soil, and depend on the synthesis of low molecular weight organic compounds, namely, hydroxybenzoic, benzoic and triterpene acids. An increase in the silicon content in the leaves of kiwiberry plants grown in Ukraine indicates the moisture deficit in the soil. This conclusion is confirmed by the anatomical differences viz. the presence of additional integumentary formations and fewer stomata number per 1 mm2 of leaf surface. The specific feature of ‘Perlyna sadu’ cultivar was high concentrations of sodium and aluminum in the foliar tissues, regardless of the place of growth. The analysis of the distribution of nutrients in the leaves located along the stem showed remobilization of the former within the three layers: the lower one nourishes the roots, the upper one nourishes the leaves in the active growth phase and the middle one allocates the assimilates in both directions. A significant positive relationship was found between the biosynthesis of photosynthetic pigments and electrophysiological activity, especially for the leaves of the lower zone. The revealed differentiation into layers differing in polarity of bioelectric potentials and the distribution of assimilates suggests functional differentiation of the kiwiberry leaves. In particular, the leaves of the lower layer perform a storage function. The middle part is less conservative and characterized by higher sensitivity to environmental factors performs a mainly synthetic function. The upper layer performs an active growth function. The results of the comparative analysis of the indicators of the number of chloroplasts in the mesophyll cells proved that the obtained dependence can be used as a diagnostic criterion in assessing the predicted plant productivity at the early stages of their development.


Belan, L. L., Pozza, E. A., Freitas, M. L. D., Pozza, A. A., & Alves, M. S. (2015). Nutrients distribution in diseased coffee leaf tissue. Australasian Plant Pathology, 44(1), 105–111.

Buwalda, J. G., & Smith, G. S. (1991). Influence of anions on the potassium status and productivity of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) vines. Plant and Soil, 133, 209–218.

De Souza, A., Govea-Alcaide, E., Masunaga, S. H., Fajardo-Rosabal, L., Effenberger, F., Rossi, L. M., & Jardim, R. F. (2019). Impact of Fe3O4 nanoparticle on nutrient accumulation in common bean plants grown in soil. SN Applied Sciences, 1, 308.

Dong, C., He, F., Berkowitz, O., Liu, J., Cao, P., Tang, M., Shi, H., Wang, W., Li, Q., Shen, Z., Whelan, J., & Zheng, L. (2018). Alternative splicing plays a critical role in maintaining mineral nutrient homeostasis in rice (Oryza sativa). The Plant Cell, 30, 2267–2285.

Han, N., Park, H., Kim, C.-W., Kim, M.-S., & Lee, U. (2019). Physicochemical quality of hardy kiwifruit (Actinidia arguta L. cv. cheongsan) during ripening is influenced by harvest maturity. Forest Science and Technology, 15, 187–191.

Jankowski, K., Malinowska, E., Wiśniewska-Kadżajan, B., Jankowska, J., Truba, M., Czeluściński, W., Koper, O., Góral, P., Kania, P., Matsyura, A. (2018a). The effects of soil conditioners on grass colour throughout the growing season. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 16(4), 3981–3992.

Jankowski, K., Truba, M., Jankowska, J., Czeluscinski, W., Wisniewska-Kadzajan, B., Malinowska, E., Koper, O., Góral, P., Kania, P., Matsyura, A. (2018b). Effects of soil conditioners on lawn grass growth in different year seasons. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 16(4), 3755–3765.

Kalaji, H. M., Bąba, W., Gediga, K., Goltsev, V., Samborska, I. A., Cetner, M. D., Dimitrova, S., Piszcz, U., Bielecki, K., Karmowska, K., Dankov, K., & Kompała-Bąba, A. (2018). Chlorophyll fluorescence as a tool for nutrient status identification in rapeseed plants. Photosynthesis Research, 136(3), 329–343.

Kornienko, I. A., Maslov, S. P., & Shilov, I. A. (1965). Nekotorye obshhie principy adaptaczii biologicheskikh sistem [On some general principles of adaptation of biological systems]. Journal of Total Biology, 26(1), 121–126.

Loza, I. M., Pakhomov, O. Y., & Chorna, V. I. (2018). Evaluation of remediation efficiency of manganese quarry lands after open-cut mining: Ecosystem approach. Naukovyi Visnyk Natsionalnoho Hirnychoho Universytetu, 4, 122–128.

Lykholat, Y. V., Khromykh, N. O., Pirko, Y. V., Alexeyeva, A. A., Pastukhova, N. L., & Blume, Y. B. (2018). Epicuticular wax composition of leaves of Tilia L. trees as a marker of adaptation to the climatic conditions of the steppe Dnieper. Cytology and Genetics, 52(5), 323–330.

Maillard, A., Diquélou, S., Billard, V., Laîné, P., Garnica, M., Prudent, M., Garcia-Mina, J., Yvin, J., & Ourry, A. (2015). Leaf mineral nutrient remobilization during leaf senescence and modulation by nutrient deficiency. Frontiers in Plant Science, 137, 1–15.

Niu, Q., Shen, J., Liu, Y., Nie, C., Skrypchenko, N. V., & Liu, D. (2019). Research progress on main active constituents and pharmacological activities of Actinidia arguta. China Academic Journal, 40(3), 333–344.

Parent, S.-E., Barlow, P., & Parent, L. E. (2015). Nutrient balances of New Zealand kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. hayward) at high yield level. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 46(1), 256–271.

Peticila, A., Scaeteanu, G., Madjar, R., Stanica, F., & Asanica, A. (2015). Fertilization effect on mineral nutrition of Actinidia deliciosa (kiwi) cultivated on different substrates. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia, 6, 132–138.

Qing, W., ZhiXing, L., JingWen, Z., & YouQing, C. (2019). Effects of lac production on the contents and distribution of nutrient elements in soil and host plants. Journal of Environmental Entomology, 41(1), 113–118.

Silva, V. M., Boleta, E. H. M., Lanza, M. G. D. B., Lavres, J., Martins, J. T., Santos, E. F., Santos, F. L. M., Putti, F. F., Junior, E. F., White, P. J., Broadleye, M. R., Carvalho, H. W. P., & Reis, A. R. (2018). Physiological, biochemical, and ultrastructural characterization of selenium toxicity in cowpea plants. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 150, 172–182.

Šimek, J., Tůma, J., & Feller, U. (2019). Accumulation, distribution and redistribution of 109Cd and 65Zn in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants on nutrient media with elevated zinc or cadmium. Journal of Elementology, 24(3), 1129–1141.

Singh, B. R., McLaughlin, M. J., & Brevik, E. C. (2017). The nexus of soils, plants, animals and human health. Catena – Schweizerbast, Stuttgart.

Skrypchenko, N., & Latocha, P. (2017). The genesis and current state of Actinidia collection in M. M. Grishko National Botanical Garden in Ukraine. Polish Journal of Natural Sciences, 32(3), 513–525.

Smith, G. S., Clark, C. J., & Holland, P. T. (1987). Chlorine requirement of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa). The New Phytologist, 106(1), 71–80.

Stefaniak, J., Stasiak, A., Latocha, P., & Łata, B. (2017). Effect of nitrogen fertilization on Actinidia arguta plants vigour and soil characteristics. Journal of International Scientific Publications, Agriculture and Food, 5, 314–323.

Volozhin, A. I., & Subbotin, Y. K. (1987). Adaptacziya i kompensacziya – universal’nyj biologicheskij mekhanizm prisposobleniya [Adaptation and compensation is a universal biological mechanism of adaptation]. Medicina, Moscow (in Russian).

Yamaji, N., & Ma, J. F. (2014). The node, a hub for mineral nutrient distribution in graminaceous plants. Trends in Plant Science, 19(9), 556–563.

Zaimenko, N. V. (2008). Naukovi pryntsypy strukturno-funktsionalnoho konstruiuvannia shtuchnykh bioheotsenoziv u systemi hrunt-roslyna-hrunt [Scientific principles of structural-functional design of artificial biogeocoenoses in soil-plant-soil system]. Naukova Dumka, Kyiv (in Ukrainian).

Zaimenko, N. V. (2019). Thermodynamical aspects of the introduction processes. Plant Introduction, 81, 3–7.

Zaimenko, N. V., & Rositska, N. V. (2018). Role of nanomaterials of analcime, Tripoli and silicon dioxide in plants under drought conditions in Tritium aestivum L. Ecologia Balcanica, 10(1), 1–9.

Zaimenko, N. V., Didyk, N. P., Pavliuchenko, N. A., Ivanytska, B. O., Kharytonova, I. P., & Rositska, N. V. (2018). Natural silicates mixed with organic fertilizers enhance corn adaptation to salt stress and improve physical characteristics of sandy soil. Journal of Crop Improvement, 20, 188–207.