Peculiarities of the distribution of assimilates in the organs of Schisandra chinensis plants under different soil and climatic conditions
AbstractPeculiarities of accumulation of nutrients in the leaves of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. and rhizosphere soil under the conditions of its continuous monoculture have been studied. Comparative analysis of the distribution of nutrients in the leaves of plants under different soil and climatic conditions revealed significant differences. It was found that plants grown on podzolic chernozem of Kolomyia State Forest Fund (Otyniia, Ukraine) were characterized by more intensive absorption of such nutrients as Ca, Si, P, Cu, Zn and Mg. The content of P, K, S, Mn was much higher in the foliar tissues of S. chinensis plants cultivated on the territory of the M. Gryshko National Botanical Garden (Kyiv, Ukraine) in the conditions of dark grey forest soil. The high ability of plants to accumulate and release Mg into the rhizosphere soil was revealed, which is fully consistent with the selective ability of plants to release mineral elements into the soil environment in accordance with their ecomorphotypes. At the same time, the amount of Ca in the rhizosphere soil decreased significantly at the end of the vegetative period, which could be explained, on the one hand, by the intensive influx of Ca into plant tissues and, on the other hand, by participation in chemical balancing processes to reduce manganese and nitrogen mobility in the soil. Barrier-free accumulation of Fe, Ca, Mg, Al elements in S. chinensis leaves was revealed, which should be taken into account when developing plant cultivation technology. The studies of allelopathy activity of vegetative and generative organs of plants and rhizosphere soil have shown that phenolic substances accumulate in small amounts in the soil under S. chinensis, which is a prerequisite for successful cultivation of this fruit vine in the Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine under conditions of continuous long-term cultivation. The largest amount of phenolic substances was in the upper soil horizons, which gradually decreased with depth, which is consistent with the course of redox processes for the studied soil profiles. The pool of free amino acids of S. chinensis plants growing in different soil and climatic conditions was analyzed, the concentration of amino acids in the leaves was the most indicative. Evaluation of the quantitative and qualitative distribution of free amino acids in plant tissues serves as a diagnostic sign of plant sensitivity to soil and climatic conditions.
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