The biology of Simulium noelleri and Simulium dolini: morphological, ecological and molecular data
AbstractMolecular genetic research has revolutionized the taxonomy and systematics of the Simuliidae family. Simulium noelleri Friederichs, 1920 is a species of blackfly, common in the Holarctic, reported for 33 countries. In 1954, Topchiev recorded it in Ukraine for the first time. Simulium dolini Usova et Sukhomlin, 1989 has been recorded at the borders of Ukraine and Belarus. It was described for the first time by Usova and Sukhomlin in 1989 from the collection from the territory of Volyn region in 1985. Usova and Sukhomlin, Yankovsky, Adler state that S. noelleri and S. dolini are different species by the morphological characteristics that differ in all phases of development. Adults differ in the structure of the genital appendages, palps, the margin and shape of the face and forehead, the colour of the legs; the larva – in the pattern on the frontal capsule, the number of rays in the fans, mandibular teeth and the hypostoma, the structure of the hind organ of attachment; pupae – in the branching way of gills. Molecular data are becoming an increasingly important tool in insect taxonomy. Therefore, we had to check that these two closely related species also have genetic difference. The development of S. noelleri and S. dolini was studied in four small rivers of Volyn region, Ukraine (Chornohuzka, Konopelka, Putylivka, Omelyanivka) in the period from 2017 to 2019. During initial processing of insect samples, we used the standard protocols EPPO PM7/129. We obtained the nucleotide sequence of S. dolini. It was proved that the populations of S. noelleri and S. dolini from medium and small rivers of Volyn differ in biological, morphological, behavioural and genetic characteristics. Comparison of the species S. noelleri with the data of the GenBank confirms the identification of three distinct morphotypes from Volyn, Great Britain and Canada. As a result of the conducted researches, it was confirmed that two close species of S. dolini and S. noelleri from the noelleri species group differ in the structure of mitochondrial DNA, which confirms their independent taxonomic status. Additional studies comprising more individuals from larger areas of Europe are required to verify the taxonomic position of these two species.
Adler, P. H., & Kachvorian, E. A. (2001). Cytogenetics of the Holarctic black fly Simulium noelleri (Diptera: Simuliidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 79(11), 1972–1979.
Adler, P. H., Yildirim, A., Onder, Z., Tasci, G. T., Duzlu, O., Arslan, M. O., Ciloglu, A., Sari, B., Parmaksizoglu, N., & Inci, A. (2016). Rearrangement hotspots in the sex chromosome of the Palearctic black fly Simulium bergi (Diptera, Simuliidae). Comparative Cytogenetics, 10(2), 295–310.
Bernotiene, R., & Stunžėnas, V. (2009). On the biology of Simulium galeratum in Lithuania: Ecological and molecular data. Ekologija, 55(2), 123–126.
Crease, T. J. (1999). The complete sequence for the mitochondrial genome of Daphnia pulex (Cladocera: Crustacea). Gene, 233, 89–99.
Davies, L. (1966). The taxonomy of British black‐flies (Diptera: Simuliidae). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London, 118(14), 413–506.
Day, J. C., Goodalls, T. I., & Post, R. J. (2008). Confirmation of the species status of the blackfly Simulium galeratum in Britain using molecular taxonomy. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 22, 55–61.
EPPO (2016). PM 7/129 (1) DNA barcoding as an identification tool for a number of regulated pests. EPPO Bulletin, 46, 501–537.
Folmer, O., Black, M., Hoeh, W., Lutz, R., & Vrijenhoek, R. (1994). DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates. Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology, 3(5), 294–299.
Kaplich, V. M., Sukhomlin, E. B., & Zinchenko, A. P. (2015). Moshki (Diptera: Simuliidae) smeshannyh lesov Evropy [Black‐flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of European mixed forests]. Novoe Znanie, Minsk (in Rassian).
Kúdela, M., Adler, P. H., & Kúdelová, T. (2018). Taxonomic status of the black fly Prosimulium italicum Rivosecchi (Diptera: Simuliidae) based on genetic evidence. Zootaxa, 4377, 280–290.
Kudela, M., Bruderova, T., Jedlička, L., Bernotiene, R., Celec, P., & Szemes, T. (2004). The identity and genetic characterization of Simulium reptans (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Central and Northern Europe. Zootaxa, 3802(3), 301–317.
Kumar, S., Stecher, G., Li, M., Knyaz, C., & Tamura, K. (2018). MEGA X: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis across computing platforms. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 35, 1547–1549.
Nei, M., & Kumar, S. (2000). Molecular evolution and phylogenetics. Oxford University Press, New York.
Rivera, J. M., & Currie, D. C. (2009). Identification of Nearctic black flies using DNA barcodes (Diptera: Simuliidae). Molecular Ecology Resources, 9(1), 224–236.
Rubtsov, I. A. (1956). Moshki (sem. Simuliidae). Fauna SSSR. Dvukrylye [Black‐flies (family Simuliidae). Fauna of the USSR. Diptera]. Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow – Leningrad (in Rassian).
Ruiz-Arrondo, I., Hernández-Triana, L. M., Ignjatović-Ćupina, A., Nikolova, N., Garza-Hernández, J. A., Rodríguez-Pérez, M. A., Oteo, J. A., Fook, A. R., & Curdi, J. L. (2018). DNA barcoding of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) as a tool for species identification and detection of hidden diversity in the eastern regions of Spain. Parasites and Vectors, 11, 463.
Sebastiani, F., Meiswinkel, R., Gomulski, L. M., Guglielmino, C. R., Mellor, P. S., Malacrida, A. R., & Gasperi, G. (2001). Molecular differentiation of the Old World Culicoides imicola species complex (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae), inferred using random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Molecular Ecology, 10, 1773–1786.
Simon, C., Frati, F., Beckenbach, A., Crespi, B., Liu, H., & Flook, P. (1994). Evolution, weighting, and phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial gene sequences and a compilation of conserved PCR primers. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 87, 1–51.
Sukhomlin, E., Zinovieva, O., & Kaplich, V. (2019). O patogennyh vidah moshek (Diptera, Simuliidae) podzony smeshannyh lesov Vostochnoj Evropy [About pathogenic species of black flies (Diptera, Simuliidae) of the Eastern Europe mixed forest subzone]. Scientific Bulletin of the Lesya Ukrainka East European National University, Biological Sciences, 387, 81–90 (in Rassian).
Sukhomlin, K. B., & Zinchenko, O. P. (2007). Moshky (Diptera: Simuliidae) Volynskoho Polissia [Black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of Volin Polissya]. Vezha, Lutsk (in Ukranian).
Szalanski, A. I., Owens, C. B., Lewter, J. A., & Broce, A. B. (2006). Genetic structure of Aedes vexans (Diptera: Culicidae) populations from Central United States based on mitochondrial ND5 sequences. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 99(1), 157–163.
Tamura, K., Dudley, J., Nei, M., & Kumar, S. (2007). MEGA4: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 24(8), 1596–1599.
Topchiev, A. G. (1954). Krovososushhie moshki jugo-vostoka USSR i mery bor’by s nimi [Blood-sucking black flies of the southeast of the Ukrainian SSR and measures to combat them]. In: Abstracts of reports of the ІІІ ecological conference. Kiev, 1, 263–265 (in Rassian).
Usova, Z. V., & Sukhomlin, E. B. (1989). Novyj vid moshki – Simulium (Argentisimulium) dolini sp. n. (Diptera, Simuliidae) [A new species of black fly – Simulium (Argentisimulium) dolini sp. n. (Diptera, Simuliidae)]. Parasitology, 23(5), 423–427 (in Rassian).
Wotton, R. S. (1986). The use of silk life‐lines by larvae of Simulium noelleri (Diptera). Aquatic Insects, 8(4), 255–261.
Yankovsky, A. V. (2002). Opredelitel’ moshek (Diptera, Simuliidae) Rossii i sopredel’nyh territorij (byvshego SSSR) [Key to black flies (Diptera, Simuliidae) of Russia and adjacent territories (the former USSR)]. Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg (in Rassian).
Zwick, H. (1986). Lectotype designation for Simulium noelleri friederichs, 1920 (Diptera: Simuliidae). Aquatic Insects, 8(3), 140.