The biology of Simulium erythrocephalum and S. chelevini (Diptera, Simuliidae): Morpho-logical, ecological and molecular data

  • K. B. Sukhomlin Lesya Ukrainka Volyn National University
  • M. O. Zinchenko Lesya Ukrainka Volyn National University
  • O. P. Zinchenko Lesya Ukrainka Volyn National University
  • V. S. Tepliuk Lesya Ukrainka Volyn National University
  • Y. V. Biletskyi Lesya Ukrainka Volyn National University
  • V. V. Ivantsiv Lesya Ukrainka Volyn National University
  • M. G. Biletska Lesya Ukrainka Volyn National University
  • L. V. Buslenko Lesya Ukrainka Volyn National University
  • V. V. Ivantsiv Lutsk National Technical University
  • S. V. Budnik Lesya Ukrainka Volyn National University
Keywords: black fly; subgenus Boophthora; Ukraine; mitochondrial DNA; cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI); taxonomy; genetic differences; phyloge-netic relationships.

Abstract

The subgenus Boophthora is a typical Palearctic taxon, which includes only 6 species, among them. Simulium erythrocephalum has a transpalearctic distribution. In Europe, Adler notes only the species S. erythrocephalum, and Yankovsky – two species S. (Boophthora) erythrocephalum and S. (Boophthora) chelevini. According to morphological characteristics, these species differ in their life stages. We have studied the development of S. erythrocephalum and S. chelevini from three rivers of Volyn region, Ukraine (Styr, Chornoguzka, Putylivka) from 2017 to 2019. We used the EPPO PM7 / 129 standard. Collected samples, 615-bp fragments of the COI gene were sequenced from five individuals of S. erythrocephalum and five individuals of S. chelevini and compared with four samples of S. erythrocephalum from the GenBank. We obtained the nucleotide sequence of S. chelevini. All of the S. erythrocephalum samples from Ukraine had 692 bases, the S. erythrocephalum samples from Armenia had 673 bases. S. erythrocephalum and S. chelevini did not have any intraspecific variations. These intraspecific variations were not larger than the interspecific variations. It has been proved that the populations of S. erythrocephalum and S. chelevini from medium and small rivers of Volyn do not differ in biological, behavioural and genetic characteristics. Comparison of S. erythrocephalum and S. chelevini life stages showed clear differences in 20 morphological features, which are probably manifestations of phenotypic variability. Comparison of species with data from the GenBank from Spain and Armenia on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene confirmed the opinion that S. erythrocephalum and S. chelevini are one species. On the phylogenetic tree, the data are not grouped, there is no clear separation of the clades. Bootstrap values are 95–100%, which may indicate a significant similarity of all studied samples and the lack of isolation of individual morphotypes from Volyn, Spain and Armenia. To finally confirm the taxonomic position of these two species, additional research is needed covering more individuals from different parts of Europe and analysis of more genes.

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Published
2022-02-09
Section
Articles

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