The effect of active forms of silicon on the biomass of agricultural crops during their growth period on technogenically altered soils of the Nikopol Manganese Ore Basin


  • І. V. Wagner Dnіpro State Agrarian-Economic University
  • V. І. Chorna Dnіpro State Agrarian-Economic University
Keywords: silicon compounds, sunflower, buckwheat, vetch, pedosoil, sod-lithogenic soils, gray-green clays

Abstract

The problem of recovery of technogenically affected soils remains unsolved. Silicon which moves in the “soil – plant” system has been insufficiently studied, though this element takes part in many processes. For assessing the role of silicon compounds, we selected samples of technogenically affected soils of different types in the territory of the research station for land reclamation of Dnіpro State Agrarian-Economic University in the Nikopol Manganese Ore Basin. We conducted a vegetative experiment and a series of laboratory tests with adding SiO2. We chose the following crops: buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, 1794), vetch (Vicia sativa Linnaeus, 1753) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, 1753). The рН of the studied soils fluctuated between 7.1 to 7.8. The content of available nitrogen and phosphorus in the soils was low, except the content of phosphorus in pedozems. We analyzed 240 samples of plants and measured their biomass. Vetch grew best on sod-lithogenous soils on forest-like lomy soils, buckwheat and sunflower – on sod-lithogenous soils on grey-green clays. The variant of experiment with 0.2% solution of SiO2 was most the efficient during growing all chosen crops on all types of studied soils. After adding amphoteric silicon, the best biomass indicators of vetch and buckwheat were observed on sod-lithogenous soils on forest-like loam, and indicators for sunflower – on sod-lithogenous soils on grey-green clays. After using 0.3% and 0.4% solution of SiO2, a gel film forms, which the seeds have no energy to penetrate and run out. Thus it slows the plant’s growth. An exception was an experiment with pedozems with adding 0.4% solution of SiO2, when the biomass of vetch was 1.5 times greater than in the experiment with 0.2% solution. We observed no similar positive effect in other variants of the experiment. All chosen crops on technogenically affected soils reacted to addition of silicon compounds by increasing biomass under the influence of SiO2 solutions with concentration higher than 0.2%. Possibly, the increase in biomass during the first 14 days is connected with adsorbing activity of silicon, which retains water and accelerates the development of plants. Even with low content of available nitrogen and phosphorum, addition of silicon compounds increased the biomass of plants by two-four times, therefore silicon in this case is a limiting factor. 

References

Abe, M., Buri, M., Kiepe, P., Roland, N. I., Susumu, S., & Wakatsuki, T. (2010). Possible influence of termites (Macrotermes bellicosus) on forms and composition of free sesquioxides in tropical soils. Pedobiologia, 53(5), 301–306.
Abe, S. S., & Wakatsuki, T. (2011). Sawah ecotechnology: A trigger for a rice green revolution in sub-Saharan Africa: Basic concept and policy implications. Outlook on Agriculture, 40, 221–227.
Abe, S. S., Wakatsuki, T., & Yamasaki, B. Y. (2016). Assessing silicon availability in soils of rice-growing lowlands and Neighboring uplands in Benin and Nigeria. Rice Science, 23(4), 196–202.
Alexandre, A., Colin, F., Koud, J.-M., & Meunier, J.-D. (1997). Plant impact on the biogeochemical cycle of silicon and related weathering processes. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 61(3), 677–682.
Banerjee, S. K., Guyodo, Y., LaPara, T. M., Anschutz, A. J., Penn, R. L., Geiss, C. E., & Zanner, W. (2006). Rock magnetic, chemical and bacterial community analysis of a modern soil from Nebraska. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 251, 168–178.
Bocharnikova, E. A., & Matichenkov, V. V. (2001). The relationship between silicon and soil physical and chemical properties. Studies in Plant Science, 8, 209–219.
Bocharnikova, E., Jiang, J., Matichenkov, A., Saihua, L., Xionghui, J., & Yunhe, X. (2016). Prospective for remediation and purification of wastes from Xikuangshan mine by using Si-based substances. Journal of Environmental Management, 172, 77–81.
Calatayud, A., Gatebe, E., Gathara, M., Johansson, T., Juma, G., Kibe, A., Musyoka, B., Mwalusepo, S., Njuguna, E., Okuku, G., Ong’amo, G., Subramanian, S., & Williamson, D. (2016). Can climate-driven change influence silicon assimilation by cereals and hence the distribution of lepidopteran stem borers in East Africa? Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 224, 95–103.
Cantais, F., Fraysse, F., Meunier, J. D., Pokrovsky, O. S., & Schott, J. (2006). Aqueous reactivity of phytoliths and plant litter: Physico-chemical constraints on terrestrial biogeochemical cycle of silicon. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 88, 202–205.
Choi, E.-S., Sukweenadhi, J., Kim, Y.-J., Jung, K. H., Koh, S-C., Hoang, A., & Yang, D.-C. (2016). The effects of rice seed dressing with Paenibacillus yonginensis and silicon on crop development on South Korea’s reclaimed tidal land. Field Crops Research, 188, 121–132.
Chorna, V., & Wagner, І. (2015a). Doslіdzhennja vmіstu zagal’nogo kremnіju u chornozemі zvichajnomu ta tehnozemі [Analysis of general silicon’s content in the blacksoil usual and technosoil]. Science World, 38(24), 30–35.
Chorna, V., & Wagner, І. (2015b). Uchast’ kremnієvih spoluk ta gumіnovih kislot u formuvannі vlastivostej ґruntu [Participation of compounds of silicon and humic acids in the formation of soil characteristics]. Collected works of Dnipropetrovsk State Agrarian and Economic University. Natural agricultural firm in Ukraine: Issues of establishment, future developments, 1, 151–153 (in Ukrainian).
Chorna, V., & Wagner, І. (2015c). Osoblivostі rozpodіlu vmіstu zagal’nogo kremnіju u chornozemі zvichajnomu [Distribution feature of general silicon content in normal blacksoil l]. Science Without Borders. Biological Sciences, 19, 75–77 (in Ukrainian).
Deren, C. W., Datnoff, L. E., & Snyder, G. H. (1997). Silicon fertilization for disease management of rice in Florida. Crop Protection, 16(6), 525–531.
Dietzel, M. (2000). Dissolution of silicates and the stability of polysilicic acid. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 64(19), 3275–3281.
Dobrovol’skij, G. (ed.) (2012). Jekologija pochv: Uchenie ob jekologicheskih funkcijah pochv [Ecology of soils: Doktrine of ecological function of soils]. Moscow University Press, Moscow (in Russian).
Dovgun, B., & Janishevskaja, O. L. (2007). Urozhaj i kachestvo l’na-dolgunca pri primenenii kremnijsoderzhashhih udobrenij i kobal’ta [Productivity and quality of bast fiber on application of silicon and cobalt]. Plodorodie, 2, 27–28 (in Russian).
Epstein, E. (1999). Silicon. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, 50, 641–664.
Hirose, S., Kawahigashi, H., Hayashi, E., Ohkawa, H., & Ohkawa, Y. (2002). Pesticide biochemistry and physiology phytotoxicity and metabolism of ethofumesate in transgenic rice plants expressing the human CYP2B6 gene. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 74(3), 139–147.
Horgan, F. G., Palenzuela, A. N., Stuart, A. M., Naredo, A. I., Ramal, A. F., Bernal, C. C., & Almazan, M.-L. (2016). Effects of silicon soil amendments and nitrogen fertilizer on apple snail (Ampullariidae) damage to rice seedlings. Crop Protection, 91, 123–131.
Kang, J., Zhao, W., & Zhu, X. (2016). Silicon improves photosynthesis and strengthens enzyme activities in the C3 succulent xerophyte Zygophyllum xanthoxylum under drought stress. Journal of Plant Physiology, 199, 76–86.
Keller, C., Guntzer, F., Barboni, D., Labreuche, J., & Meunier, J-D. (2012). Impact of agriculture on the Si biogeochemical cycle: Input from phytolith studies. Comptes Rendus Geoscience, 344, 739–746.
Keller, C., Meunier, J.-D., Miche, H., & Rizwan, M. (2012). Effect of silicon on reducing cadmium toxicity in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. c Claudio W.) grown in a soil with aged contamination. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 209–210, 326–334.
Kolesnikov, M. (2001). Formy kremnija v rastenijah [Silicon’s form in plants]. Advances in the Biology and Chemistry, 41, 301–333 (in Russian).
Kuai, J., Sun, Y., Guo, C., Zhao, L., Zuo, Q., Wu, J., & Zhou, G. (2017). Root-applied silicon in the early bud stage increases the rapeseed yield and optimizes the mechanical harvesting characteristics. Field Crops Research, 200, 88–97.
Kul’bachko, Y. L., Didur, O. O., Loza, I. M., Pakhomov, O. E., & Bezrodnova, O. V. (2015). Environmental aspects of the effect of earthworm (Lumbricidae, Oligochaeta) tropho-metabolic activity on the pH buffering capacity of remediated soil (steppe zone, Ukraine). Biology Bulletin, 42, 899–904.
Lavinsky, A. O., Detmann, K. C., Reis, J., Avila, R. T., Sanglard, M. L., Pereira, L. F., Sanglard, L., Rodrigues, F. A., Araujo, W. L., & DaMatta, F. M. (2016). Silicon improves rice grain yield and photosynthesis specifically when supplied during the reproductive growth stage. Journal of Plant Physiology, 206, 125–132.
Ma, J. F. (2004). Role of silicon in enhancing the resistance of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. Soil Science and Plant Nutrient, 11–18.
Ma, J. F., & Takahashi, E. (1989). Release of silicon from rice straw under flooded conditions. Soil Science and Plant Nutrient, 35, 663–667.
Ma, J. F., & Takahashi, E. (2002). Silicon sources for agriculture. Soil, Fertilizer, and Plant Silicon Research in Japan, 5–26.
Ma, J. F., & Yamaji, N. (2006). Silicon uptake and accumulation in higher plants. Trends in Plant Science, 11(8), 392–397.
Ma, J. F., Tamai, K., Yamaji, N., Mitani, M., Konishi, S., Katsuhara, M., Ishiguro, M., Murata, Y., & Yano, M., (2006). Silicon transporter in rice. Nature, 440, 688–691.
Matichenkov, I. (2014). Izuchenie vzaimovlijanija kremnievyh, fosfornyh, azotnyh udobrenij v sisteme “pochva – rastenie” [Study of synergy of silicic, phosphoric, nitrogenic fertilizers in the system of “soil – plant”]. Moscow University Press, Moscow (in Russian).
Matichenkov, V. V. (2008). Rol’ podvizhnyh soedinenij kremnija v rastenijah i sisteme “pochva – rastenie” [Role of mobile silicon compouds in plants and the “soil – plant”system]. Institute of Fundamental Problems of Biology of the RAS, Pushhino.
Orlov, D. S., Ammosova, Y. M., & Glebova, G. I. (1975). Molecular parameters of humic acids. Geoderma, 13(3), 211–229.
Sanglard, L. M., Detmann, K. C., Martins, S. C., Teixeira, R. A., Pereira, L. F., Sanglard, M. L., Fernie, A. R., Araujo, W. L., & Fabio, M. (2016). The role of silicon in metabolic acclimation of rice plants challenged with arsenic. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 123, 22–36.
Savant, N. K., Datnoff, L. E., & Snyder, G. H. (1997). Depletion of plant-available silicon in soils: A possible cause of declining rice yields Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 28, 1245–1252.
Sistani, K. R., Savant, N. K., & Reddy, K. C. (1997). Effect of rice hull ash silicon on rice seedling growth. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 20(1), 195–201.
Sommer, M., Kaczorek, D. Kuzyakov, Y., & Breuer, J. (2006). Silicon pools and fluxes in soils and landscapes – a review. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 169(3), 310–329.
Tsujimoto, Y. Muranaka, S., Saito, K., & Asai, H. (2014). Limited Si-nutrient status of rice plants in relation to plant-available Si of soils, nitrogen fertilizer application, and rice-growing environments across Sub-Saharan Africa. Field Crops Research, 155, 1–9.
Tsvetkova, N. M., Pakhomov, O. Y., Serdyuk, S. M., & Yakyba, M. S. (2016). Biologichne riznomanittja Ukrajiny. Dnipropetrovs'ka oblast'. Grunty. Metaly u gruntah [Bіological diversity of Ukraine. The Dnipropetrovsk region. Soils. Metals in the soils]. Lira, Dnipropetrovsk (in Ukrainian).
Vivancos, J., Deshmukh, R., Grégoire, C., Rémus-Borel, W., Belzile, F., & Bélanger, R. R. (2016). Identification and characterization of silicon efflux transporters in horsetail (Equisetum arvense). Journal of Plant Physiology, 200, 82–89.
Voronkov, M. G. (1969). Composes du silicium biologiquement actifs. Organosilicon Chemistry: 2. Plenary lectures presented at the Second International Symposium on Organosilicon Chemistry, 399–416.
Voronkov, M. G. (1974). Advances in the chemistry of biologically active organosilicon compounds. XXIVth International Congress of pure and applied chemistry plenary and main section lectures presented at Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany, 45–66.
Voronkov, M. G. (1975). Chapter 27. Silicon in Biology and Medicine. Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry, 10, 265–273.
Wattean, F., & Villemin, G. (2001). Ultrastructural study of the blogeochemical cycle of silicon in the soil and litter of atempérate forest. European Journal Soil Science, 52, 385–395.
Yamauchi, M., & Winslow, M. D. (1989). Effect of silica and magnesium on yield of upland rice in humid tropics. Plant and Soil, 113(2), 265–269.
Published
2017-05-08
Section
Articles