Distribution of poultry ectoparasites in industrial farms, farms, and private plots with different rearing technologies
AbstractOne of the problems in growing and keeping poultry, both in industrial and farm and kitchen garden environments is ectoparasites, which are responsible for lowering the productivity of poultry and causing economic losses. The study of the prevalence and diagnosis of bird ectoparasites on poultry farms with different maintenance technologies is important for the further development of integrated methods for combating them. Our research was conducted during 2006–2017 in 16 regions of Ukraine and the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. In total, 38 poultry farms specializing in egg production with poultry kept in battery cages, 18 poultry houses specializing in egg production with poultry kept on the floor and more than 150 farm and kitchen garden poultry houses for keeping chickens, turkeys, quails, guinea fowl and pigeons were examined. We found that, both with battery cages and when poultry are kept on the floor in poultry farms, the most common ectoparasites are chicken mites (Dermanyssus gallinae), which causes the disease of dermanyssiosis. It was determined that the extensivity of the invasion was, on average, from 56% to 80%. Also, in the chickens and turkeys, mallophages (Menopon gallinae, Menacanthus stramineus), which cause mallophagoses, were detected, and the extensivity of the invasion ranged from 27% to 45%. In farms and kitchen gardens where chickens, guinea fowl and quails were kept, the number of chicken mites in 1 g substrate was more than a thousand live mites, in dovecotes chicken mites were found in 50% to 100% of nests. In chickens and turkeys, besides the chicken mite, bird lice were found. In chickens, extensivity of invasion of M. gallinae, M. stramineus, Lipeurus variabilis, ranged from 15% to 22%, in turkeys, extensivity of invasion of M. gallinae and M. stramineus ranged from 16% to 25%. The scaly leg mite (Knemidocoptes mutans), which causes the disease knemidocoptiasis ("lame leg"), was detected in incubating hens over the age of two years, the extensivity of the invasion ranged from 5% to 7%. It was established that in poultry farms, both in battery cages and when the birds were kept on the floor, the main ectoparasite in chickens, guinea fowl and quail is red chicken mite (D. gallinae), and on poultry farms and kitchen gardens in addition to the chicken mite, three types of bird lice (M. gallinae, M. stramineus, L. variabilis) and K. mutans were found.
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