The avifauna of the National Nature Park "Homilshanski Lisy"


  • A. B. Chaplygina G.S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University
  • T. V. Shupova Institute for Evolutionary Ecology of NAS of Ukraine
  • A. S. Nadtochiy G.S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University
Keywords: transformation of avifauna, habitat distribution, species diversity, community ecological structure, landscape-genetic structure of the community

Abstract

In the recreational zone of "Homilshanski Lisy" National Park 137 species of birds were identified during the period 1980–2015, of which 127 species nest, 8 winter, and 2 observed during the spring migration. The nesting species are distributed in 4 ecological groups dominated by dendrophylls (67 species), with fewer limnophylls-fresh water species (29), campophylls-open country species (16) and sclerophylls (11). Among the nesting birds 11 landscape-genetic faunal assemblages were distinguished, dominated by typical nemoral-woodland (19%), tropical (14%) and forest-steppe (13%) species. The average density of the birds nesting in the park amounts to 1.2 ± 0.2 with n overall density of 148.3 pairs/km route line. The habitat distribution of the bird population was relatively even. The most intensively populated habitat was upland oak forest, the least were pine and mixed forests. It was found that the communities of breeding birds in tree plantations changed due to the natural aging process of forests, which has led to an increase in the number of birds of prey (Falconiiformes), woodpeckers (Piciformes), secondary hollow-nesting birds. The bird communities of floodplain and steppe meadows, as well as habitats in residential areas subject to constant recreational pressure, changed under the pressure of anthropogenic loading. The favorable natural and geographical location of the park and the diversity of its habitats contributed to the emergence in the list of fauna of which are expanding their range. Analysis of the dominant species in the community points to a significant negative impact of recreational pressure on all habitats of the park. The dominant birds in the pinewood community list included only one campophyll, tree pipit (Anthus trivialis L.). For the steppe meadows, in addition to the dominant colonial birds that nest in holes , the yellow wagtail (Motacilla flava L.) was marked as subdominant. In general, in the recreational area of NPP "Homilshanski Lisy" 30 common species (24.2%, total abundance 0.198) nest on the ground. The variety and balance of breeding bird communities in most habitats is stable, but in the meadow ecosystem communities the uniformity of the distribution of species abundance is being significantly disrupted. The Jacquard and Sorenson performance indices for floodplain and steppe meadows are 0.4 and 0.5, and for grove and pine woods, respectively, 0.7 and 0.8. Taking into account the data of the cluster analysis, the distribution curves of shared abundance and participation indicatee sinanthropic breeding bird communities. It follows that anthropogenic pressure exerts the most significant effect on the birds’ occupation of breeding habitats in the recreational zone NPP "Homilshanski Lisy". The highest performance is characterized by the condition of the avifauna of forest habitats, such as oak forest and pine woods, the most threatened breeding bird communities being those of floodplain meadows.

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Published
2016-03-04
Section
Articles