Phytochemical profiles, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Actinidia polygama and A. arguta fruits and leaves
AbstractPlants of two species of Actinidia genus grown in an adverse steppe climate were examined in terms of secondary metabolites’ accumulation, antioxidant potential, and antimicrobial ability. The aim of the work was to reveal whether the introduced plants A. arguta and A. polygama retain their well-known health benefits. Total content of polyphenols (549.2 and 428.1 mg GAE/100 g FW, respectively), flavonoids, and phenolic acids as well as total antioxidant activity and reducing power of the fruit isopropanol extracts were found to be equal or even higher than the reported data on kiwifruit varieties cultivated in China and other regions. Antioxidant potential and phenolic compounds’ content in the fruit peel of both species were higher when compared to pulp, while corresponding indices of leaves exceeded those of the fruit. Disc-diffusion assays showed low to moderate antibacterial activity of A. arguta and A. polygama fruit and leaf extracts against collection Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains. Clinical strains of P. aeruginosa and E. coli resistant to the action of ofloxacin were notably inhibited by A. arguta and A. polygama fruit and leaf crude extracts. Inhibiting effects of plant extracts on clinical strains of K. pneumoniae and A. baumannii were comparable with the effect of ofloxacin. GC-MS assays identified 23 and 36 chemical constituents, respectively in A. arguta and A. polygama fruit isopropanol extracts. The main compounds in both extracts were 2-propenoic acid, pentadecyl ester followed by squalene, 7,9-di-tert-butyl-1-oxaspiro(4,5)deca-6,9-dien-2,8-dione, octadecanoic acid, 2-oxo-methyl ester, ethyl-isoallocholate, and phytol having known bioactivities. Our findings confirmed the preservation of useful properties by the introduced plants and also indicated the rich health-promoting abilities and expedience of cultivating A. arguta and A. polygama in a steppe climate.
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