Antimicrobial activity of 50 plant extracts

Keywords: Salmonella typhimurium; Listeria monocytogenes; Escherichia coli; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Corynebacterium xerosis; Proteus vulgaris; Candida albicans


Antibacterial activity of plants is a subject of interest in the search for new antibiotics and fungicidal preparations. This article analyzes the effectiveness of the action of extracts of plants on microorganisms: six species of bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Corynebacterium xerosis, Proteus vulgaris) and one fungus (Candida albicans). For the assay, we used herbal material of 50 species (seeds, grass, shoots, leaves, compound fruit, peel) obtained at different periods of the growing season. We studied Levisticum officinale, Petroselinum crispum, Nerium oleander, Vinca minor, Eleutherococcus senticosus, E. sieboldianus, Yucca filamentosa, Artemisia annua, Echinacea purpurea, Matricaria recutita, Tanacetum vulgare, Betula pendula, Corylus avellana, Buxus sempervirens, Humulus lupulus, Crassula ovata, Bryophyllum daigremontianum, Juniperus communis, Platycladus orientalis, Cycas revoluta, Calluna vulgaris, Rhododendron ferrugineum, Ceratonia siliqua, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Ribes nigrum, Phellinus tuberculosus, Lavandula angustifolia, Melissa officinalis, Monarda fistulosa, Origanum vulgare, Salvia sclarea, Laurus nobilis, Punica granatum, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Menispermum dauricum, Ficus benjamina, Morus alba, Paeonia suffruticosa, Picea abies, Adonis vernalis, Amelanchier ovalis, Prunus armeniaca, Crataegus monogyna, Citrus sinensis, Salix babylonica, Bergenia crassifolia, Schisandra chinensis, Taxus baccata and Xanthoria parietina. The alcohol tincture was filtered with sterile multi-layer gauze disc filters. Before the discs were put on the surface of agar with inoculation of the corresponding culture, they were dried in a sterile laminar box under ultraviolet rays. Antibacterial activity of various tinctures was determined by the disk diffusion method in agar with the measurement of the diameter of the growth suppression zone of the culture using a template ruler. Maximum inhibiting effect was achieved for Punica granatum on K. рneumonia, L. monocytogenes, S. typhimurium, P. vulgaris, C. хerosis and E. сoli, Lavandula angustifolia – on P. vulgaris, K. рneumonia and S. typhimurium, Echinacea purpurea – on C. аlbicans, E. сoli, P. vulgaris, K. рneumonia, Bergenia crassifolia – on P. vulgaris, K. pneumonia and S. typhimurium.


Ali, A. A., Jusoh, N. H., Saridin, N., Wahab, M. S. A., & Zohdi, R. M. (2014). Evaluation of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves extracts as wound healing promoter on rats. In: 2014 IEEE Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Sciences (IECBES).

Ali, K., Khan, S., Khan, N., Khan, W., Rahman, I. U., Ullah, F., Ali, K., & Nisar, M. (2017). Ethnobotanical and ecological study of Punica granatum in district Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 8(4), 656–661.

Alsiņa, I., Dubova, L., Krūma, Z., Krainis, J., Žukauska, I., & Galoburda, R. (2010). Antimicrobial activity of extracts from different Origanum vulgare clones grown in Latvia. Microorganisms in Industry and Environment, 2010. Pp. 355–358.

Al-Zoreky, N. S. (2009). Antimicrobial activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit peels. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 134(3), 244–248.

Argemi, X., Hansmann, Y., Gaudart, J., Gillibert, A., Caumes, E., Jaureguibérry, S., & Meyer, N. (2018). Comment on “Effect of Artemisia annua and Artemisia afra tea infusions on schistosomiasis in a large clinical trial”. Phytomedicine, 62, 152804.

Arshad, M. (2018). Bioinspired synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Morus alba and their photocatalytic degradation and antibacterial activity assessment. Pure and Applied Biology, 7(4), 1252–1260.

Avci, O. (2014). Determination of in vitro antiviral activity of Nerium oleander distillate against to parainfluenza-3 virus. Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 2(5), 150–153.

Bączek, K. B., Kosakowska, O., Przybył, J. L., Pióro-Jabrucka, E., Costa, R., Mondello, L., Gniewosz, M., Synowiec, A., & Węglarz, Z. (2017). Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of essential oils and extracts from costmary (Tanacetum balsamita L.) and tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.). Industrial Crops and Products, 102, 154–163.

Belkhir, M., Rebai, O., Dhaouadi, K., Congiu, F., Tuberoso, C. I. G., Amri, M., & Fattouch, S. (2013). Comparative analysis of tunisian wild Crataegus azarolus (yellow azarole) and Crataegus monogyna (red azarole) leaf, fruit, and traditionally derived syrup: Phenolic profiles and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the aqueous-acetone extracts. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61(40), 9594–9601.

Boyko, A. A., & Brygadyrenko, V. V. (2016). Influence of water infusion of medicinal plants on larvae of Strongyloides papillosus (Nematoda, Strongyloididae). Visnyk of Dnipropetrovsk University. Biology, Ecology, 24(2), 519–525.

Cabral, C., Francisco, V., Cavaleiro, C., Gonçalves, M. J., Cruz, M. T., Sales, F., Batista, M. T., & Salgueiro, L. (2012). Essential oil of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak Needles: Chemical composition, antifungal activity and cytotoxicity. Phytotherapy Research, 26(9), 1352–1357.

Chauhan, R., Ruby, K., & Dwivedi, J. (2016). Antioxidant, lipid peroxidation and astringency study of hydroethanolic root extracts of Bergenia ligulata, Bergenia ciliata and Bergenia stracheyi. European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 15(1), 1–10.

Choi, J. G., Kang, O.-H., Lee, Y.-S., Chae, H.-S., Oh, Y.-C., Brice, O.-O., Kim, M.-S., Sohn, D.-H., Kim, H.-S., Park, H., Shin, D.-W., Rho, J.-R., & Kwon, D.-Y. (2011). In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity of Punica granatum peel ethanol extract against Salmonella. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2011, 690518.

Dahham, S. S., Ali, M. N., Tabassum, H., & Khan, M. (2010). Studies on antibacterial and antifungal activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.). American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, 9(3), 273–281.

Dragoeva, A., Ignatova-Ivanova, T., Koleva, V., Behchet, L., Nanova, Z., Kaschieva, M., & Arhangelova, N. (2015). Comparison of the effect of water infusions of Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare and Adonis vernalis on the growth of human melanoma cell line and Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 4(3), 571–577.

Duric, K., Kovac-Besovic, E., Niksic, H., & Sofic, E. (2013). Antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts, decoction and isolated triterpene products from different parts of birch, Betula pendula, Roth. Journal of Plant Studies, 2(2), 61–70.

Ebrahimi, A., Eshraghi, A., Mahzoonieh, M. R., & Lotfalian, S. (2016). Antibacterial and antibiotic-potentiation activities of Levisticum officinale L. extracts on pathogenic bacteria. International Journal of Infection, 4(2), 38768.

Fan, S.-Y., Zeng, H.-W., Pei, Y.-H., Li, L., Ye, J., Pan, Y.-X., Zhang, J.-G., Yuan, X., & Zhang, W.-D. (2012). The anti-inflammatory activities of an extract and compounds isolated from Platycladus orientalis (Linnaeus) Franco in vitro and ex vivo. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 141(2), 647–652.

Flythe, M. D., & Aiken, G. E. (2010). Effects of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) extract on volatile fatty acid production by rumen bacteria. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 109(4), 1169–1176.

Gao, Y., & He, C. (2017). Anti-proliferative and anti-metastasis effects of ten oligostilbenes from the seeds of Paeonia suffruticosa on human cancer cells. Oncology Letters, 13(6), 4371–4377.

Han, Y. (2016). Antimicrobial activity and mechanism of Schisandra chinensis extract. In: Proceedings of the 2016 5th International Conference on Environment, Materials, Chemistry and Power Electronics. Pp. 192–196.

Haroen, U., Budiansyah, A., & Nelwida (2018). Phytochemical screening and in vitro antimicrobial effect of orange (Citrus sinensis) ethyl acetate extract silage. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 17(5), 214–218.

Hayouni, E. A., Miled, K., Boubaker, S., Bellasfar, Z., Abedrabba, M., Iwaski, H., Oku, H., Matsui, T., Limam, F., & Hamdi, M. (2011). Hydroalcoholic extract based-ointment from Punica granatum L. peels with enhanced in vivo healing potential on dermal wounds. Phytomedicine, 18(11), 976–984.

Jang, D., Lee, J., Eom, S., Lee, S., Gil, J., Lim, H., & Hyun, T. (2016). Composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Eleutherococcus senticosus fruit extracts. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 6(3), 125–130.

Korcan, S. E., Aksoy, B., Erdoğmuş, S. F., & Ciğerci, I. H. (2018). Investigation of antimicrobial activity and DNA protective capacity of Melissa officinalis extracts. Afyon Kocatepe University Journal of Sciences and Engineering, 18(3), 757–762.

Küçük, S., Soyer, P., & Tunali, Y. (2019). Determination of antimicrobial and biological activities of Salvia sclarea L. (Lamiaceae) extracts. Journal of the Turkish Chemical Society, Section A: Chemistry, 6(1), 15–20.

Kurniawansyah, I. S., Ratnawulan, S. M., & Budiman, A. (2018). The antibacterial activities of aromatherapy essential oils of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and ylang-ylang (Cananga odorata (Lamk.) Hook) against airborne bacteria. International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 9(6), 71–75.

Lee, Y., & Lee, J.-Y. (2019). Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) extract exerts an anti-inflammatory action by modulating macrophage phenotypes. Nutrients, 11(5), 975.

Maajida Aafreen, M., Rv, G., & Thangavelu, L. (2019). Evaluation of anti-inflammatory action of Laurus nobilis-an in vitro studyf anti-inflammatory action of Laurus nobilis-an in vitro study. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 10(2), 1209–1213.

Mahajan, D., Bhat, Z. F., & Kumar, S. (2015). Pomegranate (Punica granatum) rind extract as a novel preservative in cheese. Food Bioscience, 12, 47–53.

Mandal, S., DebMandal, M., Pal, N. K., & Saha, K. (2010). Antibacterial activity of honey against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enterica serovar typhi. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 3(12), 961–964.

Mattarelli, P., Epifano, F., Minardi, P., Di Vito, M., Modesto, M., Barbanti, L., & Bellardi, M. G. (2017). Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from aerial parts of Monarda didyma and Monarda fistulosa cultivated in Italy. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 20(1), 76–86.

Mendez, M., Rodríguez, R., Ruiz, J., Morales-Adame, D., Castillo, F., Hernández-Castillo, F. D., & Aguilar, C. N. (2012). Antibacterial activity of plant extracts obtained with alternative organics solvents against food-borne pathogen bacteria. Industrial Crops and Products, 37(1), 445–450.

Mikulášová, M., & Vaverková, Š. (2009). Antimicrobial effects of essential oils from Tanacetum vulgare L. and Salvia officinalis L., growing in Slovakia. Nova Biotechnologica, 9(2), 161–167.

Millezi, A. F., Caixeta, D. S., Rossoni, D. F., Cardoso, M. das G., & Piccoli, R. H. (2012). In vitro antimicrobial properties of plant essential oils Thymus vulgaris, Cymbopogon citratus and Laurus nobilis against five important foodborne pathogens. Food Science and Technology, 32(1), 167–172.

Muiruri, M., & Mwangi, W. (2016). Phytochemical and antimicrobial activity of (Crassula ovata) jade plant on different strains of bacteria. European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 11(1), 1–12.

Natarajan, P., Katta, S., Andrei, I., Babu Rao Ambati, V., Leonida, M., & Haas, G. J. (2008). Positive antibacterial co-action between hop (Humulus lupulus) constituents and selected antibiotics. Phytomedicine, 15(3), 194–201.

Ozaki, H., Esaki, H., Takemoto, K., Ikeda, A., Nakatani, Y., Someya, A., Hirayama, N., & Murase, T. (2011). Antimicrobial resistance in fecal Escherichia coli isolated from growing chickens on commercial broiler farms. Veterinary Microbiology, 150(1–2), 132–139.

Pedersen, K., Hammer, A. S., Sørensen, C. M., & Heuer, O. E. (2009). Usage of antimicrobials and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria from mink. Veterinary Microbiology, 133, 115–122.

Sehgal, J. (2012). Antimicrobial activity of fruits of Prunus armeniaca (L.). Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 2(4), 163–166.

Semeniuc, C. A., Pop, C. R., & Rotar, A. M. (2017). Antibacterial activity and interactions of plant essential oil combinations against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 25(2), 403–408.

Seyyednejad, S. M., Maleki, S., Damab, N. M., & Motamedi, H. (2008). Antibacterial activity of Prunus mahaleb and parsley (Petroselinum crispum) against some pathogen. Asian Journal of Biological Sciences, 1(1), 51–55.

Tatsuzawa, F. (2015). Differences in the floral anthocyanin content of violet-blue flowers of Vinca minor L. and V. major L. (Apocynaceae). Phytochemistry Letters, 13, 365–369.

Valle, D. L., Andrade, J. I., Puzon, J. J. M., Cabrera, E. C., & Rivera, W. L. (2015). Antibacterial activities of ethanol extracts of Philippine medicinal plants against multidrug-resistant bacteria. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 5(7), 532–540.

Wasyl, D., Hoszowski, A., Zając, M., & Szulowski, K. (2013). Antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli isolated from animals at slaughter. Frontiers in Microbiology, 4, 221.

Yarmolinsky, L., Huleihel, M., Zaccai, M., & Ben-Shabat, S. (2012). Potent antiviral flavone glycosides from Ficus benjamina leaves. Fitoterapia, 83(2), 362–367.

Yokoyama, S., Kato, K., Koba, A., Minami, Y., Watanabe, K., & Yagi, F. (2008). Purification, characterization, and sequencing of antimicrobial peptides, Cy-AMP1, Cy-AMP2, and Cy-AMP3, from the Cycad (Cycas revoluta) seeds. Peptides, 29(12), 2110–2117.


Most read articles by the same author(s)

> >>