Spatial patterns of seasonal distribution of Corvidae (the case of urban habitats)


  • A. V. Matsyura Altai State University
  • А. А. Zimaroyeva Zhytomyr National Agroecological University
  • K. Jankowski Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities
Keywords: habitat pattern, spatial distribution, abundance, urban-rural gradient, Ukraine

Abstract

Corvids in Zhytomyr city reach maximum density in the winter period. Rooks and Eurasian Jackdaws were the most abundant species in winter, usually feeding in multispecies flocks and forming collective roosts.Suburban green areas (buffer zones) were characterized by a considerably high diversity of Corvidae species: this habitat was occupied by all six species. We also registered the highest density of Eurasian Jays and Hooded Crows in this habitat. The green areas in the city center were also characterized by significant corvid density, especially during the breeding season. The maximum breeding density of Rooks was in these habitats, which held 6 of 12 identified urban colonies in Zhytomyr. We found that the European Magpies, Eurasian Jays, and Hooded Crows also had high breeding success here. Eurasian Jackdaws occurred here only in autumn and winter, when they fed together with Rooks on lawns, gardens, and parks. With stable snow cover the Rook density in habitats of the green areas decreased due to the depletion of food resources.The individual buildings zone of the city were characterized by the lowest density of all corvid species, except for European Magpies and Eurasian Jays. The number of common species (Rooks, Eurasian Jackdaws, and Hooded Crows) was low because of shortage of food resources, lack of sites for large roosting flocks and shortage of suitable nesting sites. However, Eurasian Magpies reached one of their highest densities in this habitat (12.8 birds/km2). This species was registered in habitats around private buildings all the year round, successfully nesting in the yards of private houses and on trees in the streets. Its breeding density was 11.2 birds/km2.During three years of research (2009–2012) the density of all corvids except for European Magpie, practically did not change, although we determined a slight positive trend for all the species. The strong increase in the number of Eurasian Jackdaws could be explained by the increasing density of wintering populations or due to the increasing number of migrants from more northern regions.

References

Anderies, J.M., Katti, M., Shochat, E., 2007. Living in the city: Resource availability, predation, and bird population dynamics in urban areas. J. Theor. Biol. 247, 36–49. >> doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2007.01.030
Blair, R.B., Johnson, E.M., 2008. Suburban habitats and their role for birds in the urban-rural habitat network: Points of local invasion and extinction? Landscape Ecol. 23, 1157–1169. >> doi.org/10.1007/s10980-008-9267-y
Bonier, F., Martin, P.R., Wingfield, J.C., 2007. Urban birds have broader environmental tolerance. Biol. Lett. 3, 670–673. >> doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2007.0349
Catterall, C.P., 2009. Responses of faunal assemblages to urbanisation: Global research paradigms and an avian case study. In: McDonnell, M.J., Hahs, A.K., Brueste, J.H. (eds.) Ecology of cities and towns: A comparative approach. Cambridge University Press, New York. P. 129–155. >> doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511609763.009
Chace, J.F., Walsh, J.J., 2006. Urban effects on native avifauna: A review. Landscape Urban Plan.74, 46–69. >> doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2004.08.007
Ciach, M., 2012. The winter bird community of rural areas in the proximity of cities: Low density and rapid decrease in diversity. Pol. J. Ecol. 60, 193–199.
Clergeau, P., Savard, J.P.L., Mennechez, G., Falardeau, G., 1998. Bird abundance and diversity along an urban-rural gradient: A comparative study between two cities on different continents. Condor 100, 413–425. >> doi.org/10.2307/1369707
Conole, L., Kirkpatrick, J.B., 2011. Functional and spatial differentiation of urban bird assemblages at the landscape scale. Landscape Urban Plan. 100, 11–23. >> doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2010.11.007
Ditchkoff, S.S., Saalfeld, S.T., Gibson, C.J., 2006. Animal behavior in urban ecosystems: Modifications due to human-induced stress. Urban Ecosyst. 9, 5–12. >> doi.org/10.1007/s11252-006-3262-3
Donchev, S.I., Pyankov, P.N., 1989. Status and trends synantropyzatsyy and synurbyzatsyy birds in Bulgaria. Ecology 22, 35–42.
Evans, K.L., Chamberlain, D.E., Hatchwell, B.J., Gregory, R.D., Gaston, K.J., 2010. What makes an urban bird? Glob. Change Biol. 17, 32–44. >> doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02247.x
Evans, K.L., Newson, S.E., Gaston, K.J., 2009. Habitat influences on urban avian assemblages. Ibis 151, 19–39. >> doi.org/10.1111/j.1474-919x.2008.00898.x
Fernandez-Juricic, E., Jokimäki, J., 2001. A habitat island approach to conserving birds in urban landscapes: Case studies from southern and northern Europe. Biodivers. Conserv. 10, 2023–2043. >> doi.org/10.1023/a:1013133308987
Grimm, N.B., Faeth, S.H., Golubiewski, N.E., Redman, C.L., Wu, J., Bai, X., Briggs, J.M., 2008. Global change and the ecology of cities. Science 319, 756–760. doi.org/10.1126/science.1150195
Hundson, W.H., 1998. Birds in London. Longmans Green and Co., London.
Jerzak, L., 1995. Breeding ecology of an urban Magpie Pica pica population in Zielona Góra (SW Poland). Acta Ornithol. 29, 123–133.
Jokimäki, M.-L., Hakkarainen, H., Huhta, E., Inki., K., Suorsa, P., 2009. Urbanization and stability of a bird community in winter. Ecoscience 16, 502–507. >> doi.org/10.2980/16-4-3280
Laband, D.N., Lockaby, B.G., Zipperer, W.C., 2013. Urban-rural interfaces: Linking people and nature. American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America, Crop Science Society of America, Inc. Madison, USA.
Leveau, L.M., 2013. Bird traits in urban-rural gradients: How many functional groups are there? J. Ornithol. 154, 655–662. >> doi.org/10.1007/s10336-012-0928-x
Luck, G.W., Smallbone, L.T., 2010. Species diversity and urbanization: Patterns, drivers and implications. In: Gaston K.J. (ed.) Urban ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Mac Nally, R., 2000. Regression and model-building in conservation biology, biogeography and ecology: The distinction between and reconciliation of ‘predictive’ and ‘explanatory’ models. Biodivers. Conserv. 9, 655–671. >> doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511778483.006
Marzluff, J.M., Bowman, R., Donnelly, R., 2001. A historical perspective on urban bird research: trends, terms, and approaches. In: Marzluff, J.M., Bowman, R., Donnelly, R. (eds.) Avian ecology and conservation in an urbanizing world. Kluwer Academic, Boston. P. 1–16. >> doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-1531-9_1
Marzluff, J.M., Rodewald, A.D., 2008. Conserving biodiversity in urbanizing areas: Nontraditional views from a bird’s perspective. Cities and the Environment 1(2), article 6. >> doi.org/10.15365/cate.1262008
McDonnell, M.J., Hahs, A.K., 2008. The use of gradient analysis studies in advancing our understanding of the ecology of urbanizing landscapes: Current status and future directions. Landscape Ecol. 23, 1143–1155. >> doi.org/10.1007/s10980-008-9253-4
Matsyura, A., Jankowski, K., Zimaroeva, A., 2015a. Corvidae tolerance to human disturbance in settlement landscapes of Zhytomir (Ukraine). Romanian Journal of Biology – Zoology 60(1), 39–47.
Matsyura, A., Jankowski, K., Zimaroeva, A., 2015b. Escape behaviours of Corvidae in an urban ecosystem of Zhytomyr (Ukraine). Romanian Journal of Biology – Zoology 60(2), 125–134.
Matsyura, A.V., Zimaroyeva, A.A., 2016. Osobennosti prostranstvennogo raspredeleniya voronovykh v usloviyakh transformirovannykh landshaftov Zhytomyrskoy oblasti [Spatial distribution of Corvidae in transformed landscapes of Zhytomyr area]. Vìsn. Dnìpropetr. Unìv. Ser. Bìol. Ekol. 22(1), 53–59 (in Russian).
Møller, A.P., 2009. Successful city dwellers: A comparative study of the ecological characteristics of urban birds in the Western Palearctic. Oecologia 159, 849–858. >> doi.org/10.1007/s00442-008-1259-8
Møller, A.P., Diaz, M., Flensted-Jensen, E., Grim, T., Iba’nez-Alamo, J.D., Jokimaki, J.-M., Marko, G., Tryjanowski, P., 2012. High urban population density of birds reflects their timing of urbanization. Oecologia 170, 867–875. >> doi.org/10.1007/s00442-012-2355-3
Ramalho, C.E., Hobbs, R.J., 2012. Time for a change: Dynamic urban ecology. Trends Ecol. Evol. 27, 179–188. >> doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2011.10.008
Ruszczyk, A., Rodrigues, J.J.S., Roberts, T.M.T., Bendati, M.M.A., Del Pino, R.S., Marques, J.C.V., Melo, M.T.Q., 1987. Distribution patterns of eight bird species in the urbanization gradient of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Ci’encia e Cultura 39, 14–19.
Savard, J.P.L., Clergeau, P., Mennechez, G., 2000. Biodiversity concepts and urban ecosystems. Landscape Urban Plan. 48, 131–142. >> doi.org/10.1016/s0169-2046(00)00037-2
Strohbach, M.V., Haase, D., Kabish, N., 2009. Birds and the city: Urban biodiversity, land use, and socioeconomics. Ecol. Soc. 14, 31. >> doi.org/10.5751/es-03141-140231
Tratalos, J., Fuller, R.A., Evans, K.L., Davies, R.G., Newson, S.E., Greenwood, J.J.D., Gaston, K.J., 2007. Bird densities are associated with household densities. Glob. Chang. Biol. 13, 1685–1695. >> doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2007.01390.x
Zeller, H.G., Schuffernecker, I., 2004. West Nile virus: An overview of its spread in Europe and the Mediterranean basin in contrast to its spread in the Americas. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 23(3), 147–156. >> doi.org/10.1007/s10096-003-1085-1
Published
2016-09-18
Section
Articles